History: Ancient Egypt and Maat Meaning World Essay

Submitted By CRS78514
Words: 798
Pages: 4

Egyptians and Mesopotamians The Egyptians and Mesopotamians are very similar and very different. They both played a key part in history. Both believed in polytheism and both had a king or pharaoh. Some differences are that in Mesopotamia the king had to answer to an assembly but the pharaoh was free to do what he pleased. The Egyptians believed that the world was stable and predictable but the Mesopotamians believed that it was unstable. Ancient Egypt was a civilization far ahead of its time. Ancient Egypt created paper high heels and condoms. Their general outlook on life was that life is balanced and predictable or maat meaning world in perfect order. The government was very centralized. It was broken up into 42 nomes with a governors appointed by the Pharaoh. The Pharaoh was the ruler of Egypt and was considered to be a living god. His eldest son is always his successor and was normally appointed while his father was still alive. The royal lived lavish lifestyle which was maintained by the heavy amount of taxes. Everything was recorded including wills, conscription lists, tax lists, letters, trades and trial transcripts. The law and justice system was based on common sense of moral wright and wrong. There was no real need for a military because of the natural barriers preventing invaders Because they did not have to worry much about invaders, they were able to create an elaborate religion. This religion guided their every aspect. They believed in polytheism, worship of many deities. All together the religion consisted of two-thousand gods and goddesses some being local and some were worshiped nationwide. The gods and goddesses usually part human and part animal. The animals were almost always a bull, cat, or crocodile because they were deemed as holy. The chief gods were Amon-Ra and Osiris. Amon-Ra was the sun god and lord of the Universe. He is often credited for creating the world. Osiris was the god of the underworld. He was responsible for creating a peaceful after life. Death was considered to be the most important part, a lot of time and money is spent in after life preparations. The ancient Mesopotamians created a government that was a theocracy. Kings ruled the people. Elected officials who served in the Assembly also ruled the people. Even kings had to ask the Assembly for permission to do certain things. Law held a special place in their civilization. Sumerian laws were not written down, but people knew what they were and they knew what could happen to you if you broke the law. The Sumerian laws clearly said how you had to behave and what your punishment would be if you did not behave correctly. The laws that were later written down by the ancient Babylonians were, for the most part, laws first created by the ancient Sumerians. The code of Hammurabi was created by the king Hammurabi for the Babylonians. The Babylonians were the first culture to create an organized religion. They were a mythopoeic culture; myths make up a part of the culture, such as the epic of Gilgamesh. Rituals are developed such as sacrifice and