As an economically beneficial and controllable offshoot of the United States, not equal but valuable and no threat.
What interests did they have in Latin America?
Fruit, tobacco farming, sugar.
Why did the Cuban revolution occur?
Because the old regime was corrupt, impoverished and brutal.
What ‘type’ of revolution was Castro’s revolution?
Relatively peaceful, It was political and popular.
What was America’s reaction to the Cuban revolution?
At first Eisenhower ignored it as he was “too busy”, after I became clear that Cuba was nationalist and had claimed foreign oil refineries. Over 1billion dollars’ worth. Eisenhower placed a trade embargo and started training Cuban exiles to be revolutionary terrorists. It was devastating and caused immense enmity, exiles trained to invade in Guatemala, plan presented to new president JFK he agreed, CIA mislead him. JFK had the sense to cover up US involvement.
America faced a real problem in interpreting nationalist revolutions – why was this?
They were staunchly capitalist and immediately saw it as communist.
Bay of Pigs:
April 15th 1961 only 6 US bombers attacked Cuban airfields only destroyed 3 planes, several civilians killed, this was to prepare for exile invasion. To gain USSR support Castro declared Cuba socialist. 16th april 1961, 1500 heavily armed exiles attacked by boat at bay of pigs, US revoked air support due to international pressure. Cuban air force destroyed most boats, whole Cuban army deployed with no support the exiles were either all dead or captured in 72 hours, exiles disgusted at betrayal of US. CIA told to come up with new plans, nothing worked even assassination. JFK devastated at debacle, US humiliated big communist win. Castro wanted to spread revolution to rest of Latin America. On spring 1962 practice invasion mounted on carribean island, US did it as a threat to get attention Cuba believed US were preparing to invade, Castro begged Khrushchev for help.
What did USSR do after the Bay of Pigs?
To give defence to Cuba and to further own goals USSR sent nuclear missile bases to Cuba only had mid range nukes so it was strategically vital. Cuba accepted happily July 1962 bases started to be built. Totally hidden to US, Military equipment hidden below decks. Claimed to be tractors etc being shipped and experts for industry 43k. CIA agents reported that seeing USSR troops and missile equipment. CIA ignored it but got suspicious of increase in USSR imports.
What did Kennedy set up when U2 spy planes revealed the existence of missile bases in Cuba?
A Quarantine. Massive invasion force prepared just in case.
What options were open to him?
Invasion, bomber strikes to destroy bases most popular, Kennedy’s brother Robert warned it would be condemned internationally and US would lose allies and incur wrath of USSR. This left diplomacy and quarantine AKA a blockade of Cuba. Diplomacy failed to get missiles removed.
October 14th 1962 U2 sent to spy on Cuba, missiles discovered. US outraged and panicked, didn’t anticipate it. JFK informed 16th October called an emergency meeting. US angered as USSR did it with deception and it gave USSR first strike capability
October 26th “harder we pull the tighter the knot gets”. Diplomacy began, 27th Khrushchev fought for better dealJFK said it was a NATO gift and couldn’t make promises but would try. U2 plane. JFK ordered no retaliation for shooting down of U2. Decided to overlook negatives