Hellenistic Essay Through their conquests and spread of culture, Phillip II of Macedon and especially his son Alexander the Great helped lay the foundations for a New Greek world. Their actions and those of their successors spread Greek culture throughout much of the known world and created many lasting social and political changes. In this essay I will argue that Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic world that he created had many enduring impacts on the social, political, and cultural fabric of the Western world. Alexander the Great helped instill a new ideology which identified being Greek less with loyalty to an individual city-state than with participation in a common Greek civilization. Macedon was a border state of Greece in the north and although it was rich in resources and manpower, other Greek city states saw it as culturally inferior. However, the Macedon King Phillip II was a brilliant soldier and statesmen, and he became dominant in Macedon championing a conquest of Persia as retribution for attacks in the 5th century. Though bribery, threats, and military action he was able to subjugate most of the Greek world by 338 BC. However, his untimely murder in 336 BC left the conquest of Persia up to his 20 year old son, Alexander. Alexander was well-educated and tutored by the brilliant Greek philosopher Aristotle, but his main focus in life was warfare and he was a master strategist. He was popular, inspiring, and shared his soldiers’ risks in battle, earning their trust. Alexander invaded Persia in 334 BC and although he was outnumbered and underfunded he won three major battles in Asia Minor over the Persians. He fast marching and exceedingly experienced army helped solidify his claim to the Persian throne in 328 BC in blood and iron. After conquering Persia and freeing the Greek city-states of Asia minor, he continued for 7 more years eastward, his conquests even going into parts of India. Eventually he was forced to turn back by his soldiers but he had forever changed the political and cultural layout of the ancient world. Alexander turned against the Macedonian nobility and forced his subjects to bow to him while insisting the Greek city-states deify him. This set the precedent for Roman emperors and Hellenistic monarchs. Alexander promoted cultural fusion and forced Macedonians to intermarry with Persians. He attempted to create a partnership between Persians and Greeks although he faced a lot of opposition. He died at the age of 33 in 323BC and his death began a long series of civil wars between his generals for succession. By 275 BC his empire was divided up into Macedon, Ptolemaic Egypt, the Seleucid realm in western Asia, and other smaller kingdoms. In the years following Alexander’s conquests many Greeks migrated off the mainland in 4th and 3rd centuries most commonly to Egypt and Seleucid realm. Athenian thinker Isocrates had promoted the idea that Greece was not a group of city-states but a civilization. This made it easier for migrants to hold onto Greek identity and for foreigners to become Greek. The Greeks carried their urban institutions and culture with them. Laws, cults, educational methods, customs, dress, and art were all brought to the conquered regions. The Greek language served as a common denominator for the Hellenistic world and became the language of international affairs. There were numerous social changes that took in the new Hellenistic world. New colonies were established throughout the known world, many developing into flourishing cities. Alexander himself founded over 70 new cities, the most notable of which was Alexandria in Egypt. A gymnasium was constructed in many of these cities and served as the center of Greek culture and a prep school for the elite. Economic expansion was also a key feature of the Hellenistic world. An influx of gold and silver coinage by Alexander created a commercial boom, especially in Ptolemaic Egypt. Alexandria was…
group of languages who migrated from west Africa to the southern half of Africa
Benin-a kingdom that arose near the Niger River delta in the 1300s and became a major West African state in the 1400s
Brahma- Hindu god considered the creator of the world
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Caliph-a supreme religious and political leader in a Muslim government
Cambyses-Persian emperor who took over Egypt destroying many temples and buildings
men had the more important job, they progressively became more important in society compared to women.
At around 3200 BCE, the written language of hieroglyphics was developed in Egypt. This was one of the earliest forms of organized writing in history. This changed the way people communicated for the next 5000 years! Written language is one of the most useful things in society today. It allows for many aspects of daily life to be much easier; for example, many law codes and records and holy writings…
AP World History – Midterm Review Guide
The Midterm Exam will consist of two parts.
Part I will be 50 definitions that you will need to match with the proper term. All definitions will come from the list below.
Part II will consist of 2 separate essays that you will need to write. You will have 4 choices for each essay, all taken from the list following the definitions.
Terms and Definitions:
1. Bantu migration:
The spread of Bantu-speaking peoples from their homeland in what…
April 22, 2013
April 22, 2013
Understanding the Past
Focus Your Knowledge
1. Crete is one of the largest Greek islands, around 200km in length. This island attracts so many people because of its beautiful environment, including tall mountain ranges, tropical climates, and a generally pleasant and peaceful atmosphere. To the early settlers, Crete was the perfect land for vegetation,…
What were the reasons for Alexander the Great's conquest of the Near Eastern world?
Alexander the Great had such a strong desire that he had to continue winning and conquering other empires in order to be satisfied. He kept going and conquering because he was never felt fulfilled with what he had. He was always tempted by everything that is unknown and he loved to take risks. As a child he was not close with his family in fact, he considered his tutor, Aristotle who taught him from…
to thousands of civilians and soldiers deceased and alive to build nationalism and pride for Athens. He wanted them to believe in what they were fighting and highlight all strong characteristics of Athens and its culture. Thucydides, an important Greek writer from 5th century B.C, played a vital role in enabling Pericles’ words to be recorded to this very day. He was the author and transcribed the war between Athens and Sparta also known as Peloponnesian War. This speech was a formal speech by Pericles…
1. Hellenistic: Term used to designate ancient Greece’s language, culture, and civilization.
2. Macedon: Weaker, less culturally advanced state on Greece’s northern border that was unified and led to power by Philip II and Alexander the Great.
3. Philip II: King of Macedon and father of Alexander the Great, he was a brilliant soldier and statesman who conquered the Greek world.
4. Alexander the Great： King of Macedon and conqueror of the Persian Empire, he spread Greek civilization…
The Greek World 500-400BC; source scaffold.
1 Persian Wars
– Origins: Persian imperialism, Ionian Revolt
- Reasons for imperialism economic power, control of trade, capture booty, prestige. The policy of imperialism was imposed by King Cyrus.
- In 547BC Harpagus, a loyal Median General, conquered the Ionian Greek cities of Aegean Coast. The Ionian’s then had to pay heavy taxes and contribute to the Persian army and navy required.
- Captured empires include Babylon, Syria…
E. Collision: Alexander and the Hellenistic Era
1. Philip II of Macedon completed conquest of Greece by 338 b.c.e.
a. political unification of Greece by force
b. plan for great Greek expedition against Persia
2. Alexander’s expedition against Persia (333–323 b.c.e.)
a. created a massive Greek empire that reached from Egypt and Anatolia to Afghanistan and
b. defeat of Persian Empire, destruction of Persepolis
c. Alexander anointed as pharaoh of Egypt, declared to be “son of the gods”…