Essay about History Midterm

Submitted By corey41091
Words: 2254
Pages: 10

Midterm Essay Examination
The Rise of Early Civilizations from 3500 BCE to 600 BCE Throughout history many civilizations have risen to the top and then fallen. Analyzing several of these civilizations such as Mesopotamia, Egypt, China, India, American, Hebrew, and Iranian between the time period 3500 BCE to 600 BCE conclusions can be made of how they rose to the top during their existence. When analyzing several of these early cultures they can be broken up into regions or what would be known as city like states today. Through examining these cities conclusions of what they contributed to future civilizations and how they declined can be made by examining their history. One of the earliest civilizations that is known today is Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia which existed around the period of 6000 BCE was the first civilization to domesticate food and tame wild seed to control the production of food (Mayer, "Ancient Societies"). Needing to be able to use natural irrigation Mesopotamia was established in the river valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers ( Mayer, "Ancient Societies"). By the year 3500 BCE Mesopotamia was termed as the first hydraulic society and was developed on how to collectively irrigate the land in the river valleys (Mayer, "Ancient Societies"). Around this same time the people of Mesopotamia discovered how to create tools and weapons using metals that they mined (Mayer, "Ancient Societies"). During this time it is believed that the Mesopotamian people were going through a technological revolution (Mayer, "Ancient Societies"). The technological revolution that occurred would later contribute to future civilizations such as Egypt. As the technological revolution was occurring some 500 years later they discovered that bronze could be made by combining tin or arsenic with copper they were able to create bronze (Mayer, "Ancient Societies"). Bronze was much stronger then copper which meant sharper stronger tools and weapons were able to be created (Mayer, "Ancient Societies"). With the creation of bronze in 3000 BCE they created an age in time called the Bronze age which lasted 1800 years (Mayer, "Ancient Societies"). Throughout this time the people of the city state of Sur began using animal powered plows to mend to their farms (Mayer, "Ancient Civilizations"). Also around this time they began to use sail boats to travel along the rivers for trade which allowed them to be able to create wheels with the trades they completed (Mayer, "Ancient Civilizations"). By the year 3450 BCE scribes of Mesopotamia were able to come up with a writing system known as cuneiform (von Sivers, et. al. 44). Though others argue that they had no written system in the year 2800 BCE but instead used pictograms (Mayer, "Ancient societies"). After further developing they began to conquer further territories and established the first empire that is known of today which extended from the Persian gulf to the Mediterranean (Mayer, "Ancient Societies"). Mesopotamia began to fall in 2150 BCE when the house of Sargon fell due to instability and attacks from barbarians and people in the highlands (Mayer, "Ancient Societies"). After the falling it was built back up again by a King named Hammurabi (Mayer, "Ancient Civilizations"). Hammurabi enforced strict laws such as if a tavern owner overcharged customers he would be drowned as punishment (von Sivers, et. al., 46). Mesopotamia eventually declined due to warfare and instability of its economy. The next great civilization that was established occurred along the Nile river. The civilization was known as Egypt (Mayer, "Ancient Societies"). Egypt was broken up into two distinct kingdoms. These kingdoms were known as lower Egypt which was located near the broad delta of the Nile river north of the Memphis. The other kingdom was known as Upper Egypt which was southward to the first cataract in the river as Aswan (Mayer, "Ancient Societies"). Political order and stability of the economy was