History Notes Essay example

Submitted By FrancoAvella23
Words: 999
Pages: 4

Asian American Notes Midterm 1

• Takaki o Ch. 1
• William Hooper (from Boston) on mission to establish the first sugar plantation in Hawaii.
• Quickly realizes that Chinese labor force very efficient.
• Ten years (late 1840’s) a US policymaker, Aaron Palmer, called for the importation of Chinese laborers to the US.
• Chinese laborers fit well into American theme of not letting land go to waste.
• American plantation owners mix up laborers in order to avoid hostility and for security purposes.
• 1908 Gentlemen’s Agreement-Japan restricted the emigration of Japanese laborers (Japanese asked for higher wages)
• 1909-Japanese strike threatened planter control of the work force. Filipinos used to keep Japanese in check as Filipinos were fine with lower wages.
• Improvements in American technology (steamboat) facilitate Asian emigration.
• Massive emigration of Chinese immigration justified by the American notion of them being “civilized” by American culture.
• Importation of Chinese labor discourages whites from striking (because of threat of Chinese labor to white work force).
• Mexicans growing source of labor in 1920’s, soon replaced by Filipinos after the Immigration Act of 1924 (1924 law barred entry to those ineligible for citizenship — effectively ending the immigration of all Asians into the United States and undermining the earlier "Gentlemen`s Agreement" with Japan)
• Asians driven to US by necessity and extravagance.
• Between 1840-1900, 2.5 million Chinese immigrated.
• Reasons included Opium Wars of 1839-1842 and 1856-1860, peasant rebellions such as the Red Turban Rebellion, and bloody strife between the “Local people” and “Guest people” over fertile delta land.
• Harsh economic conditions: high taxes imposed by Qing government due to Opium Wars, overpopulation=starvation and unemployment.
• Chinese driven by Gold rush=get rich (tales also facilitated this). Cheap transportation to US as well for Chinese.
• Chinese tradition and culture limited women immigration, mostly men went to US.
• Men thought they would be gone temporarily, also more costly. Explains why women stayed back.
• Hostage theory-women were kept at home to make sure that their men would not become prodigal sons of America. Basically, way to ensure Chinese men didn’t leave to America.
• Asians more likely to bring wives to Hawaii than California.
• Chinese going to California were Punti, to Hawaii were Hakka. Hakka women did not practice foot binding.
• Hawaii planters afraid of too many men because of their animal instincts, Chinese women could control their husbands, and missionaries thought it was proper to bring family.
• In California, Chinese men seen as temporary work force, conditions more tough to raise a family as well since Chinese men were always moving spots to work.
• Chinese not seen as competition in Hawaii, but seen as such in California. Not many whites in Hawaii, unlike California.
• Page Law 1875-prohibit entry of prostitutes, specifically targeted Chinese prostitutes and women in general.
• Migration to Hawaii was regulated, limited to Chinese plantation laborers, which limited Chinese prostitution. TO California, however, much wider range of migrants, led to more prostitution.
• Traditionally, Japanese discouraged from traveling to foreign lands.
• In 1884, the Japanese government signed off on letting Hawaiian planters to recruit Japanese laborers.
• Japan tries to industrialize in late 1800’s. To fund this, Japanese farmers taxed heavily.
• Farmers soon leave in masses from 1885-1894
• Japanese become interested in US mainland in 1890’s-fueled by American wages.
• Japanese migrants more literate than European counterparts, well educated. Also, were not comparatively poor.
• Japanese did not want to follow the failure of Chinese which was introducing extremely cheap labor. Were afraid of Americans viewing Japanese poorly and excluding them from US. Japanese were a…