Asian American Notes

Submitted By FrancoAvella23
Words: 999
Pages: 4

Asian American Notes Midterm 1

• Takaki o Ch. 1
• William Hooper (from Boston) on mission to establish the first sugar plantation in Hawaii.
• Quickly realizes that Chinese labor force very efficient.
• Ten years (late 1840’s) a US policymaker, Aaron Palmer, called for the importation of Chinese laborers to the US.
• Chinese laborers fit well into American theme of not letting land go to waste.
• American plantation owners mix up laborers in order to avoid hostility and for security purposes.
• 1908 Gentlemen’s Agreement-Japan restricted the emigration of Japanese laborers (Japanese asked for higher wages)
• 1909-Japanese strike threatened planter control of the work force. Filipinos used to keep Japanese in check as Filipinos were fine with lower wages.
• Improvements in American technology (steamboat) facilitate Asian emigration.
• Massive emigration of Chinese immigration justified by the American notion of them being “civilized” by American culture.
• Importation of Chinese labor discourages whites from striking (because of threat of Chinese labor to white work force).
• Mexicans growing source of labor in 1920’s, soon replaced by Filipinos after the Immigration Act of 1924 (1924 law barred entry to those ineligible for citizenship — effectively ending the immigration of all Asians into the United States and undermining the earlier "Gentlemen`s Agreement" with Japan)
• Asians driven to US by necessity and extravagance.
• Between 1840-1900, 2.5 million Chinese immigrated.
• Reasons included Opium Wars of 1839-1842 and 1856-1860, peasant rebellions such as the Red Turban Rebellion, and bloody strife between the “Local people” and “Guest people” over fertile delta land.
• Harsh economic conditions: high taxes imposed by Qing government due to Opium Wars, overpopulation=starvation and unemployment.
• Chinese driven by Gold rush=get rich (tales also facilitated this). Cheap transportation to US as well for Chinese.
• Chinese tradition and culture limited women immigration, mostly men went to US.
• Men thought they would be gone temporarily, also more costly. Explains why women stayed back.
• Hostage theory-women were kept at home to make sure that their men would not become prodigal sons of America. Basically, way to ensure Chinese men didn’t leave to America.
• Asians more likely to bring wives to Hawaii than California.
• Chinese going to California were Punti, to Hawaii were Hakka. Hakka women did not practice foot binding.
• Hawaii planters afraid of too many men because of their animal instincts, Chinese women could control their husbands, and missionaries thought it was proper to bring family.
• In California, Chinese men seen as temporary work force, conditions more tough to raise a family as well since Chinese men were always moving spots to work.
• Chinese not seen as competition in Hawaii, but seen as such in California. Not many whites in Hawaii, unlike California.
• Page Law 1875-prohibit entry of prostitutes, specifically targeted Chinese prostitutes and women in general.
• Migration to Hawaii was regulated, limited to Chinese plantation laborers, which limited Chinese prostitution. TO California, however, much wider range of migrants, led to more prostitution.
• Traditionally, Japanese discouraged from traveling to foreign lands.
• In 1884, the Japanese government signed off on letting Hawaiian planters to recruit Japanese laborers.
• Japan tries to industrialize in late 1800’s. To fund this, Japanese farmers taxed heavily.
• Farmers soon leave in masses from 1885-1894
• Japanese become interested in US mainland in 1890’s-fueled by American wages.
• Japanese migrants more literate than European counterparts, well educated. Also, were not comparatively poor.
• Japanese did not want to follow the failure of Chinese which was introducing extremely cheap labor. Were afraid of Americans viewing Japanese poorly and excluding them from US. Japanese were a