Primary Sources-eyewitness account, documents written during the time period. (Diaries, interviews)
PAPER: Place and time/Author, Argument, Audience/Purpose/Evaluate/Relate.
Secondary Source-analyzes, interprets the event, after the account. (Textbook. Journals)
STAMP: Structure/Thesis/Author, Argument, Audience/Motives/Primary Sources.
***Chapter Titles, Topic Sentence
1. Reconstruction, 1865-1877
Robert E. Lee surrenders at Appomattox Courthouse. Lincoln is assassinated 5 days later on April 14, 1865 by John Wilkes Booth who acted as a spy for the south at Fords theatre.
Booth opposed abolition and Lincoln’s plan to free the slaves. He hoped to create a new civil war; he also planned to kill the VP and sec of state but that plan failed.
African American Men received the right to vote after the civil war.
2. Presidential reconstruction (1865-1867)
Andrew Johnson now president. He was a southerner but remained loyal to the north during the war. Yet, he was racist and showed very little sympathy to the newly freed slaves.
Johnson proposes a new plan:
Pardon all white southerners who took and oath of allegiance to the U.S, and states had to ratify the 13th amendment (free slaves) and revoke their order of succession in order to re enter the union.
State government formed, but things start to replicate pre civil war especially southern states.
3. Black Codes
State laws that regulated the lives of the former slaves. They couldn’t vote, testify against whites in court, or own land.
They had to sign work contracts with white landholders (pretty much slavery)
Galvanized the republican party (pro Lincoln) against reconstruction.
It was the death of slavery, but not necessarily the birth of freedom.
1866-Most states had black codes, the KKK grew stronger.
Congressional election of 1866-2/3 in both houses were republicans (radical republicans)
4. Radical Reconstruction: 1867-1877
1867 Reconstruction Act: Dissolved southern governments and placed south under federal military rule.
Southern States had to give black men the right to vote and pass the 14th amendment (gave citizenship to all ppl born in the us) to reenter the union.
The federal government gives equal protection to all citizens.
15th amendment- gave all black men the right to vote, there were still loopholes the south came up with. (Literacy test, grandfather clause, poll tax)
5. A new Labor System
Share Cropping-farmer (former slaves) paid rent by giving a portion of his crop to landowner.
Forced famers to grow cotton, created a cycle of debt farmers couldn’t escape.
Farmers had no money, but they needed food and equipment, so they borrowed money, which landed them in a lot of debt. Forced to grow a cash crop (cotton), which they would try and sell.
5. End of Reconstruction-1877
The compromise of 1877-Important because it ended reconstruction
Presidential election of 1876-Democratic Candidate Samuel Tilden won the popular vote, but was one electoral vote shy of victory.
Electoral Votes Disputed
Republican Rutherford Hayes awarded presidency. The congress committee had 7 republicans, 7 democrats and 1 independent that resigned and was replaced with another republican. (8:7 republican favor)
Caused a lot of problems until a compromise was reached: All fed troops were removed from the south, Hayes made president.
Ended reconstructions, slaves still aren’t exactly free tough.
The late 1800s in the American West
Dealing with the Native Americans
1. Transcontinental Railroad-one of the single engineering feats of the US.
Fed government offers money and land grants to any company interested in building the railroad.
Union Pacific and Central Pacific take the offer.
Union Pacific- builds westward from Omaha. The laborers are mostly Irish immigrants and civil war veterans.
Central Pacific- Build