Ch. 1: The earliest humanlike creatures were known as hominids, existed in Africa as long as 3 to 4 million years ago. They flourished in the east and South Africa and were the first hominids to make simple stone tools. A crucial stage in human development began with the emergence of Homo sapiens. They appeared in Africa between 200,000 and 150,000 years ago. During the Paleolithic Age, humans relied on hunting and gathering for the daily food. They were required to be nomadic, because of their hunting and gathering techniques.
Overtime they invented bettering hunting tools, like the spear and bow and arrow. This made hunting considerably easier. Once they learned how to plant and harvest, they were no longer required to move. They learned to use animal skin to and stick to make proper shelter. The making of tools and the use of fire are two important technological innovations of Paleolithic peoples and reminds us how crucial the ability to adapt was to human survival.
The biggest change was the shift from hunting animals and gathering plants for sustenance to producing food by systematic agriculture. The growing of corps on a regular basis gave rise to more permanent settlements, which historians refer to as Neolithic farming villages or towns. Jericho is one of the oldest known agricultural villages in Canaan near the Dead Sea. It covered several acres and had a wall several feet thick that enclosed houses made of sundried bricks. People lived in mud huts that were so closed together they had to enter from a hole in the roof.
The men were primarily responsible for hunting and family, while the women did the household up keep and gathered berries and nuts. During this time they invented writing for record keeping and the use of metals marked a new level of human control over the environment and its resources.
Ch. 2: The Hebrews origins and history was collected and published into the Hebrew Bible, better known to the Christians as the old Testaments. The Hebrew was forced to migrate to Egypt because of the drought in Canaan. They were forced to become slaves and servants to the pharaohs, until Mosses led his people out of Egypt in the first half of the thirteenth century. King Saul was the first king of the Israelites. After Saul death, David took over thrown. David centralized Israel’s political organization and accelerated the integration of the Israelites into a settled community based on farming and urban life.
He was known for his building projects. The social structure of the Hebrews evolved as the Israelites settled in towns and villages. The men played an important role in influencing the Hebrew society. The Hebrews foundation was built upon family. The Persians maintained their empire through their army, which they used to drive conflict out of the empire. The Assyrian empire placed royal family members and powerful military leaders as governors or lords of the foreign conquered kingdoms. The Neo- Babylonians were the last great empire in Mesopotamia.
The Hanging Gardens are one of the 7 wonders of the ancient world. They were very skilled in math and astronomy. They had the best defense system out of all of the other empires. The defense system had an inner wall, outer wall, and a moat. Babylon was defeated and replaced by Persian Empire in 539 B.C. Cyrus the Great was responsible for defeating the Babylon and ended the Jew’s captivity.
Cyrus ruled from 559 to 530 B.C. and was a great leader, hence the name Cyrus the Great. He respected other cultures and not only did he free the Jews, but he also treated conquer peoples fairly. Darius I was responsible for expanding the empire. He divided the empire into provinces called Satrapies to make it more manageable. They collected taxes, provided justice and security, and got soldiers for the army. He developed the Royal Road, which stretched from Lydia to Susa, the chief capital of the empire.
Ch. 3: Greek civilization started around 2000