Loss of AngloSaxon aristocracy, land and English control over the Catholic church.
England was divided into areas called “shires” that were ruled by a “sheriff”(shire reeve)
Domesday book created by William the Conqueror provided a kingdom wide census of
England which provided info that helped build an efficient system of tax collection.
Language of the ruling class was french
William built monasteries, castles, cathedrals, and churches.
Over the next 300 years there was a gradual blending of Norman French and AngloSaxon customs, languages and traditions.
Developing a Unified Legal System
Henry the II develops a unified legal system throughout England through the use of:
Common Law laws that applied to all of England
Jury men who determined which cases should be brought to trial(ancestor to today's grand jury) claimed the right to try clergy in royal courts
King John and the Magna Carta
During his reign he:
lost norman french rulers land of england to King Philips II
excommunicated and had an interdict put on England by Pope innocent III over an argument on an archbishop appointment to Canterbury
angered his own nobles to sign the magna carta
stated that englishmen had certain rights
he himself was not above the law
due process of law
agreed to consult with the great council of lords and clergy before raising taxes
Evolution of English Gov.
1066 Norman Conquest
William, duke of normandy defeated King harold of the
AngloSaxons at Hastings
1086 Domesday book King william uses this census or survey of people and property as a basis for taxation
1215 Magna Carta
King john approves this document limiting royal power and extending rights to nobles and freemen.
1295 Model Parliament King Edward I expands Parliament to include representatives of common people as well as lords and clergy.
By the 1200’s the Great Council evolved into Parliament.
● Chief legislative body of england, helped unify england
1295 King edward I had representatives of common people join w the lords and clergy.( two knights from each county and representatives of the towns.)
In time Parliament developed into a two house body: the house of lords with nobles and high clergy. THe house of commons with knights and middle class citizens
The time parliament gained control of the purse which allowed it to limit the power of the monarch Unlike william the conqueror in england, monarchs in france did not rule over a unified kingdom. French territories were ruled by powerful nobles.
987 Hugh Capet was elected King of France and he and his heirs increased royal power by:
● making the throne hereditary
● winning the support of the church
● gaining more land by playing rival nobles against each other
● building an effective bureaucracy collecting taxes, imposing royal law and gaining support of the new middle class.
1179 Philip II became king of France
● quadrupled royal land holdings(including English ruled land of Normandy) through trickery, diplomacy and war.
● Before his death in 1223, philip had become the most powerful ruler in all of europe.
During the early middle ages the church spread its influence and increased its power across europe. Monarchs were becoming more powerful and by 1077, explosive conflicts had arisen between secular rulers and church officials.
Charlemagne was the first Holy Roman Emperor when he helped Pope Leo III put down a rebellion from Roman nobles.
In 962, Duke Otto of saxony helped the pope defeat another rebellious attack from Roman
Nobles. For his effort otto was crowned and given the title Holy Roman Emperor by the pope.
“Holy” bc they were crowned by the pope & “Roman” bc the monarchs saw themselves as heirs to the emperors of ancient Rome.
To the dissatisfaction of the pope Holy Roman Emperors often decided who would become bishops and abbots within their realm/territory.