History Notes on India Essay examples

Submitted By nickelfree
Words: 1108
Pages: 5

Section 1
Early Civilization of India and Pakistan

I. Geography of the Indian Subcontinent A. South Asia= the Indian Subcontinent
Subcontinent: large landmass that juts out from a continent
Indian subcontinent extends into the Indian Ocean includes (ten most populous contries: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Bhutan) B. Mountain Ranges
Northern Border of Indian Subcontinent marked by Hindu Kush Mountains and Himmalayas
Ranges served as passages to invading people and migrations for thousands of years C. Three Zones of Indian Subcontinent
Gangetic Plane: Fertile zone in the North
Deccan Plateau: Dry Region: Plateau a raised area of level land that juts into the Indian Ocean
Coastal Plains: Either side of Deccan Plateau: separated from the Declan by low-lying mountain ranges D. Monsoons monsoons: Seasonal Winds that regularly blow from a certain direction for part of the year
Winter Monsoons: bring hot, dry air that withers crops (wind blows from the northeast)
Summer Monsoons blow from the Southwest they drench land with downpours
Indians welcome monsoons too much water result in deadly floods
Rains are late starvation may occur
II. Indus Civilization A. First South Asian civilization emerged in the Indian River valley: present-Day Pakistan
Indus Civilization flourished for 700 years
Most facts remain unknown by archaeologists
Some examples of organized government
5 large cities may have been prominent
Twin capitals: Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro B. Farming and Trading
Most Indus people were farmers
Farmers grow a variety of crops: wheat, barley, melons and dates
Trading: Likely the first people to cultivate cotton and make cloth from it
Merchants and Traders carried cargoe of cloth grain copper pearls and ivory to distant lands up the coast of the Arabian Sea to Persian Gulf

C. Religious Beliefs
Likely polytheistic: Mother goddess source of creation
Certain animals viewed as sacred i.e. buffalo and the bull veneration: Special regard or cattle D. What happened to the Indus Civilization?
Scholars do not know
Invaders may have attacked and destroyed the Indus
Damage to the local environment
Major Flood may have occurred
III Aryan Civilization: Warriors who fought in chariots with bows and arrows A. Aryans: Nomadic people before 200 B.C. arrive in the Indian subcontinent
Traveled through the mountains and discovered new civilizations in India
Languages: Indo-European languages
Vedas: a collection of hymns, chants and ritual instructions and other religious parents
Vedic Age: period from 1500 BC to 500 BC B. Aryans both Nomads and Farmers
Aryans mingled with people they conquered
Gradually settled with those they conquered
Made tools out of iron
Aryan tribes led by chiefs called rajahs
Rajhs are skilled war leaders elected by fellow warriors
C. Aryan Society Developed into ranked groups by occupation
Highest groups were priests
Then Warriors called Kshatriyas
Third group were Vaisyas group included farmers, artisans and merchants Last group-4th group were the Sudras--servants D. Aryan Religion
Worshipped gods who were in nature such as sky, sun, storm and fire
Chief Aryan Diety was the god of war called Indra
The Indra announced the arrival of rain and used a thunderbolt as a weapon to destroy demons embodied: to give a visible form to something abstract

IV: Epic Literature: Evolved over thousands of years A. acculturation: blending of a two or more cultures B. Sanskrit: written language developed by the priests to write sacred texts C. Mahabharata: India’s greatest epic tales tells of battles and rivals D. Ramayana: Another epic much shorter than Mahabharata tells the story of Rama, a hero and his bride Sita

Section 2

I. Hinduism and Buddhism A: Essential Beliefs of Hinduism