Present-day Canada provides shelter to a heterogeneous mixture of residents. Many of the nation's occupants own an origin that traces back to different regions of the world. Amongst the several distinctive groups of people that immigrated into Canada since the 17th century, the Loyalists have contributed a tremendous hand in shaping the nation's heritage, history and social composition. The entrance of the Loyalists is a major milestone in Canadian immigration as they lay the foundation for building the identity of Canada through values, religion, language, occupations, lifestyles and much more that they carried over from their places of origin. Throughout, this study will focus on the important people that ensured and assisted in the comfortable settlement of the Loyalists upon their entry into Canada as well, in a land where structural governments or law ceased to exist at the time. The Loyalists: Forging a Legacy intends to identify the origin of the Loyalists, their early immigration and settlement, and their influence in cultivating a new nation, a new populace in Canada. The term 'Loyalist' (in its noun form; also referred to as the Tory) related to the one-third of the American colonists that were loyal to the British Crown and stood against the supporters of colonial independence during the American Revolution. The Loyalists originated from the Thirteen Colonies (political entities that composed the U.S.). The Loyalists were a people of different occupations, class and came from all over the American colony; 'the slave-worked plantations of Georgia to the frontier farms of New York.' To safeguard the interests of the British crown, the Loyalists joined in a movement to abolish colonial independence ideas, and amongst several methods used to display their allegiance, they joined the British army. After America won its independence from the British (the War of Independence), the Loyalists were deemed political refugees and began to exit the country, leaving behind their land and property only to move in to Canada as they were unwilling to become American citizens or to avoid suffering torture through beatings, harassment and possible, imprisonment. This predicament is the beginning but significant, in the shaping of the diverse population of Canada. The Loyalists made their way into Canada soon after the American Revolutionary war. For America, the revolution proved to be a blessing in every direction but for Canada, the revolution was a disaster in the short-term in that that the settlement of the Loyalists within the existing population was nothing but an instantaneous catastrophe that created enormous tension, strife and division. The settlement of the Loyalists was a task not undemanding since land was to be allotted and assistance to settle was inevitable as they left behind their wealth and property when they fled. The initial wield of Loyalists that migrated in 1783, granted British North America with its 'first large influx of English-speaking settlers.'  Between 1755 and 1784, a huge crowd of 40,000 to 50,000 Loyalists flocked in to British North America of which approximately 35,000 went to the Maritimes and 9,500 to the province of Quebec. In both these provinces, the administrative authorities with limited funds and resources faced great challenges to accommodate the Loyalists as they strived to supply the newcomers with food, clothing, tools, seed, temporary accommodation and land to build permanent homes later on. The ruling officials also had to decide as to who settled where, while solving the many squabbles over land grant. Many officials, members of the Tory and by-standers considered the tasks, overwhelming as they analyzed if the challenges could be taken care of. However, with credit and praise going to the authorities, all problems were solved decisively and the large multitude of Loyalists was settled. After the Treaty of Paris in 1784, in Quebec, the
below may be dealt with in different sequence, or varied or amended as we focus on certain areas along the way.
TOPICS AND READINGS SCHEDULE
Lecture 1 Introduction (Conceptualizing Legal History and Origins of Canada's System)
The Roman legacy, what William found after Hastings by way of local ‘criminal law’
Optional: Bellamy, The English Criminal Trial, 1300-1600
Pollack and Maitland, Crime and Tort in History of English Law Vol. 2
Lecture 2 Eighteenth Century…