History Of Philosophy

Submitted By Stefanija15
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1. Philosophy is the intellectual attempt to understand reality through rational, critical questioning. It can be also defined as exercising our intellectual curiosity- trying to define philosophy is doing philosophy. The origin of the word philosophy comes from the Greek words “philo” (love); and “Sophia” (wisdom) and can be literally translated as the love of wisdom, wisdom in terms of intellectual wisdom. It began in 585 B.C.E with the shift from believing in a myth to using our own intellectual curiosity. Thales predicted an eclipse which signified the ability of humans to explain phenomena using their own human intellect; and phenomena were previously explained by methodology. There are 4 main areas in the field of philosophy:
-Methaphysics (Ontology)- is the study of the structure of being, of reality in general. This area was the foundation for natural sciences, since science explores various aspects of the world of being.
-Epistemology- is the study or theory of knowledge; it explores what it means to know and how do we know what we know.
-Logic- is the study of clarity and precision of thinking. It deals with formalizing and exploring insights, concepts, and judgments, eliminating confusion and doubt that results from inconsistency, imprecision, and discontinuity in expression.
-Ethics (Axiology) is the study of moral philosophy; what is right and wrong and how humans think and create values.

2. The Apology is Plato’s version of the speech given by Socrates as he defended himself in 399 BBC against the old and the new charges imposed on him by Greek society. The old charges include: making inquiries into things beneath the earth and in the heavens; thinking about things he is not supposed to think, teaching for money, making weaker arguments appear stronger, and teaching others to do the same. As his defense he uses the story of the “Oracle of Delphi”. The Oracle said that Socrates was the wisest person so now Socrates wants to figure out if this is true. Thus, he goes on a mission from God to figure out what is the meaning behind the Oracle’s saying. In this mission he starts questioning three groups of people: the politicians, the poets and the artisans, coming to the conclusion that he is the wisest since he realized that human wisdom has limits; only God is wise and Socrates serves God. The old charges are hard to defend from because they are roomers; there are no specific