I. Three Worlds Meet a. Native Americans 1. migration and diversity- North America, South America, Central America, and Caribbean’s. 2. culture- trade networks started in the 1400s. They were polytheistic. 3. Indian people beyond the present-day US 4. Statistics- 50-70 million Native Americans lived here when Christopher Columbus came and landed on San Salvador. 2/3rds of Native Americans died from smallpox. b. Africans 1. West African empires 2. culture c. Western Europeans 1.comparisons
2. New World Exploration a. Portugal b. Spain- Columbus and Indian encounters c. slavery d. Great Dying- killed 2/3rds of Native Americans and the Black Plague killed 1/3rd. e. English exploration
Test Term……..Colonies- 1430s, territorial outpost that belongs to the mother country for the purpose of enriching the mother country.
1. Review a. English exploration 1. hesitant explorers 2. Spain, Martin Luther-catholic monk who lived in Germany and criticized, and the Reformation- Henry the 8th creates the Anglican Religion in order to divorce his wife. 3. Victory over the Spanish Armada- Spain invades and defeats England in 1588 over religion.
2. England’s New World Colonies: 15th century a. Jamestown, Virginia (1607)- this was the first original colony, founded by English merchants who raised money and sent ships across the Atlantic in search of wealth. 1. a joint stock company- a corporation that sold shares to investors. The money was used to buy and stock up ships in search of gold and riches. 2. the early years-1609 is when people started starving to death because the Native Americans would not let the Settlers out of Jamestown to hunt and gather. 3. tobacco and indentured servants- tobacco became a cash crop in 1612. 4. relations with Native Americans- Good Friday assault in 1619
b. Massachusetts (1620) second original colony 1. Puritans settled Mass. They were religious zealots. 2. Plymoth: the early years- created stable community that was built around the church. 3. family farms and church- church was the center of life for Puritans. 4. relations with Native Americans c. Northern vs. southern colonies (some sweeping generalization)
2. Colonial Slavery (17th-18th centuries) a. 1st Africans in English colonies (1619)- First slaves were in Virginia. b. Transition to slavery (1680’s and 90’s)- English were very involved at this time and it was the cheapest. Less indentured servants at this time. c. Bacon’s Rebellion (1675-76)- When a group of poor frontier man decided to start a frontier war to take over some land from the Native Americans. Bacon’s Rebels burn down Jamestown in 1676. d. West Africa- e. Middle Passage- where ships crossed the Atlantic from Africa to the new world carrying slaves. f. Agricultural laborers- g. “Black Codes”-by about 1700 most colonies made these laws that restricted the lives of enslaved individuals. h. Resistance, family, religion- i. Enslaved Africans in the North- 1750 is when 10% of the northern states have slaves.
3. Salem witchcraft hysteria: 1692 a. Cultural beliefs about witches- inflicted harm to certain individual. 80% were women. b. How the hysteria began… Rev. Samuel Parris in 1692 had a daughter and niece who became ill and had things on their body that can’t be inflicted on themselves. Marry Sibley uses counter-magic by a witch cake. Tichiba, Sara Good and Sara Osborne were convicted of being witches. c. How the story ends…
2. Road to the American Revolution a. Political life of American colonies—1700s- Each had it’s own governor appointed by the crown. b. 7-Years-War- French and Indian war over land from 1756-1763. English debt- trade and taxation- c. Sugar Act, 1764- d. Currency Act, 1764- e. Stamp Act and Vice Admiralty Courts, 1765- f. Taxation without