Essay about History: World War I and John J. Pershing

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Lecture 9
Wilson’s Administration and World War I
Wilson’s Policy:Domestic Affairs and the Economy

Attack on the Triple Wall of Privilege
1.Tariffs
1913Underwood Tariff Act

2.Banks
1913Federal Reserve Act
Federal Reserve Board
12 Banking Districts
Sets Interest Rates Prime Rate

3.Trusts
1914Federal Trade Commission Act
Clayton Anti-Trust Act

Foreign Affairs
1913Mexico and Revolution
Gen. Victoriano Huerta

Venustiano Carranza

Pancho Villa Villa attacks Columbus, NM

Wilson assigns Col. John J. Pershing to pursue Villa.

1914-1915Haiti

Foundations for WWI

Points leading to European Conflict:

1.Emergence of Germany as a power both in Europe and the world.

2.Battle over the Balkans.

3.Austria-Hungary Empire

4.Russian dominance.

5.Secret Treaties

6.Imperialism

7.Natural Resources

Flashpoint starting WWI
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his expectant wife in Sarajevo

Gavrilo Prinzip, assassin or a patriot?

Conspiracy Plot: 6Assassins Aided by the Black Hand, secret organization Supported by the Serbian intelligence agency

What happens after the assassination?
Alignment of Nations
Sides
AlliesCentral Powers
SerbiaAustria-Hungary
Russia “Big Bear”Germany great army
FranceItaly*
Great BritainTurkey
JapanBulgaria
Canada
New Zealand
Australia

Why is there a star next to Italy?

Who is conspicuously absent?

Neutrality:Not taking sides, no support for either side.

Was this for real or true??

U. S. saw it as an Economic Opportunity
Sell goods to both sides.Make money.

But how long could the U. S. remain neutral?

Not for long, the U.S. (business man) is still selling and importing goods to the allies and central powers

Events that lead to American involvement
1.Submarine Warfare by the Germans May 7, 1915Lusitania

August, 1915Arabic

March, 1916Sussex
Wilson protests the German undeclared attacks on passenger liners.

Election of 1916
Progressive RepublicansT. Roosevelt
DemocratsWoodrow Wilson
RepublicansCharles Evan Hughes
SocialistA. L. Benson

Wilson’s campaign slogan was:
“I kept us out of war. I kept your sons at home.”

Results:EVPV
Wilson49.4%2779,127,695
Hughes46.2%2548,523,507
Benson 3.2% 0

What facts support the United States entering WWI?

1.Submarine warfare.

2.Bolshevik Revolution.
Russia pulls out of the war due to internal revolution. Communists overthrow the Tsar.

3.Zimmerman Note, March 1, 1917.

Secret communication from German government, Arthur Zimmerman to German Ambassador to Mexico, von Eckhardt then to the Mexican government entreating the Mexicans to go to war against the United States in the southwest.

Germany promises to assist Mexico in recovering the “lost provinces” of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.

Discovered by the British Intelligence Agency. They did not want to make it public because it would make the Germans aware their codes had been broken.

19 January, 1917: The Zimmerman Note to the German Minister to Mexico Berlin, January 19, 1917
On the first of February we intend to begin submarine warfare unrestricted. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United States of America.
Why?
If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to re-conquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left to you for settlement....
Why would the Mexicans do this?
You are instructed to inform the President of Mexico of the above in the greatest confidence as soon as it is certain that there will be an outbreak of war with the United States and suggest that the President of Mexico, on his own initiative, should communicate with Japan suggesting adherence at once to this plan;…