4 Themes of Conflict
1) English vs. French
2) Native People vs. Government of Canada
3) Canada vs. USA
4) East vs. West
Sir John A. Macdonald was re-elected in 1878 promising his National Policy
- Completion of the CPR
- Protective Tariffs (Taxes) to encourage
- Immigration to the west
Government wanted British, Americans, and Eastern Europeans to immigrate to Canada.
Other races, such as Asians and Indians, were not as welcome to Canada as white people.
At this time in Canada, there were 2 groups of people in Canada. There were
- Continentalists, who wanted stronger ties with America
- Imperialists, who wanted stronger ties with Britain
Sir Wilfred Laurier
Sir Wilfred Laurier was known as the Great Compromiser. Three of the biggest compromises that he made were
- The Boer War. Britain is involved in a war with South Africa, and Britain asks for troops. French Canada refuses to go, while English Canada supports it. Wilfred Laurier calls for volunteers only, as his compromise.
- Manitoba School Question. Manitoba was questioning whether French and Roman Catholic should be taught at school. French Canada says yes, English Canada says no. Laurier then decides that French and Roman Catholic should be taught afterschool only, not during daytime, so that only people who want to go to the class can go.
- Naval Crisis. Britain asks Canada for money to help them build their navy stronger; Laurier says that Canada will build its own Navy and that Britain can use it whenever they feel like. This Navy was not strong, as it was nicknamed “The Tin Pot Navy”.
1.2 – Events leading to the beginning of WW1
The Naval Crisis
Germany’s new leader wants to make Germany the strongest country in the world. Britain currently holds that position because they possess the strongest navy in the world. So, the new leader of Germany decides that they should build “Dreadnaughts”, which are ships that are heavily geared for war.
When Britain sees this, they figure that they can’t just let Germany surpass them. Thus, Britain starts funding for Battleships as well, and asks Canada for help.
Russia goes to war with Japan
Russia wants to war with Japan to decrease their power, however, Russia loses the war. This makes Britain happy, as Russia is a foe and Japan is an ally. (Strong ally, weak foe)
Germany however, is also happy with this. This means that Germany is the strongest country in all of Europe, because Germany is stronger than Japan, and Russia is weaker than Japan which makes Germany stronger than them.
Moroccan Crisis 1908
Germany decides to pick on France because they’re weak from a recent war. Germany demands that France give up their land Morocco, and France has to agree because they’d lose instantly to Germany in a war. France now forms an alliance with Britain and Russia, because they need protection and help. Germany wants to be more aggressive and be more imperialistic.
The First Balkan Crisis
In 1908, Russia needed to transport its good through a river owned by Turkey. Turkey denied them the usage of it. Russia then spoke with Austria-Hungary to ask them to ask Turkey the use of the waters. Austria-Hungary agrees on one condition; that Russia doesn’t defend the Balkans for when they attack them. Russia agrees. Then, after Austria Hungary takes over the Balkans, they double cross Russia and don’t talk with Turkey. Russia, who is infuriated, decides to help the small Balkan alliance the remaining Balkans made to defend them against Austria-Hungary for when they attack. Germany tells Russia to back down or they’re going to help Austria-Hungary and declare war on them. Russia backs down.
Second Moroccan Crisis
Germany raids Morocco, as they want to take over the land from France. France offers them the Congo in return that they don’t take over Morocco. Germany agrees and freely takes over the Congo.
Second Balkan Crisis
The Balkan league, the alliance the remaining Balkan states