Chapter 15 Outline
In 1850, 75% of people attended church.
Age of Reason by Thomas Paine - Churches “set up to terrify and enslave mankind, and monopolize power and profit”.
Many supported the idea of Deism, which rejected original sin of man, denied Christ’s divinity but believed in a supreme being that created universe with an order.
Unitarian faith begins. People believed God existed in only 1 person and not in the orthodox trinity. stressed human nature was good
People believed in free will and salvation through good works.
Rationalism and optimism became a more popular school of thought.
Questioning Christianity caused religious Christians oppose these beliefs.
Liberalism in religion started in 1800 spawned the 2nd Great.
Awakening a tidal wave of spiritual fervor that resulted in prison reform, church reform, temperance movement (no alcohol), women’s rights movement, abolition of slavery in 1830s.
The revival furthered fragmentation of religious faiths
Western New York known as the Burned-Over District
It was preaching hellfire and damnation
Millerites or Adventists predicted Christ to return to earth on Oct 22, 1844.
Christ didn't return and they lost credibility
The Second Great Awakening widened gap between classes and region
Most of south became Methodist or Baptists.
Free School for a Free People
The idea of tax-supported primary schools was opposed as a hand-out to paupers
Gradually, support for education rose but remained weak in the south
Free public education, triumphed in 1828 along with the voting power in the Jackson election
Teachers were largely ill-taught and ill-trained
Horace Mann fought for better schools, and higher paid teachers
Known as the “Father of Public Education”
School remained too expensive for many people
Blacks were mostly excluded from education
Educational advances were greatly aided by Noah Webster and William H. McGuffey.
An Age of Reform
Most reformers were intelligent and inspired idealists
Opposed tobacco, alcohol, profanity, and many other vices, and came out for women’s rights
Women were very important in motivating these reform movements reformers were often optimists who sought a perfect society ignored the problems of factories
They fought for no imprisonment for debt and less harsh punishments for crimes.
The mentally insane were treated with incredible cruelty.
Believed to be filled with unclean spirits. Dorothea Dix fought to help the mentally insane in her classic petition of 1843
In 1828 the American Peace society formed war on war
William Ladd was an influential speaker for the American Peace Society
Women in Revolt
Women stayed home, without voting rights.
But they were still generally better off than in Europe.
Many women avoided marriage to retain title to their property.
American Women were regarded as the inferior sex, and they had sharp distinct economic roles.
Women were encouraged to work at home, even by some reformers
Women reformers began fighting for women rights and the abolition of slavery.
Women's rights movement was mothered by some arresting characters.
Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony
Seneca Falls, New York was the location of the Women’s Rights Convention in 1848.
Women’s right to vote was first proposed.
Women’s Rights movement was ignored as the problem of slavery heated up.
Trumpeters of Transcendentalism
A golden age in literature dawned in the second quarter of the nineteenth century
Transcendentalism was a main idea that arose.
Transcendentalism rejected the theory