Caliphate: It is the name of the Islamic Empire during the post-Prophet Mohammad era. It is also the office established in succession to the Prophet to rule the Empire. This is where Islam initially branched out.
Charlemagne: He was the grandson of Charles Martel. He campaigns in several countries in Europe in 810s, and he is supported by the Pope and ultimately becomes the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. He was also a person involved in the creation and implementation of the Monasteries in order to bring wealth to the Church.
Diocletian: He was a Roman emperor from 284-305. He was born in to the lower-class in the province of Dalmatia in the Roman Empire and rose up to become a very powerful man in society. He had many reforms and was able to help lower inflation rates through his economic stabilization methods.
Pax Romana: This was a period of relative peace and neutrality, along with little territorial expansion by the Roman Empire in the first and second centuries. It was also a time of remarkable trading between neighboring settlements and the Roman Empire, with safe travelling both through roads and seas.
Vikings: They were the group of people in northwestern Europe that started moving out around the 900s and were a huge problem for Charlemagne’s Holy Roman Empire in terms of influence and trade. They were a very important group of people, and impacted Europe in the late 800s and early 900s. The Vikings also found the city of Dublin, and made trading deals with France.
Julius Caesar: He was a Roman general, consul, and a significant figure in Roman society and military. He played a major role in the events that led to the end of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire in 27 AD.
Sunni: Muslims belonging to the branch of Islam believing that the community selects its own leadership. This is the most common sect in most Islamic countries. They believe in Abu Baker as the successor.
Genghis Khan: He was born as Temujin and later became known as the Great Khan. He was the founder of the massive Mongul Empire. He became immensely powerful in Asia by uniting the nomadic tribes of northeast Asia.
Arianism: This is the theological teaching attributed to Arius, a Christian presbyter in Alexandria, Egypt, about the relationship of God and Jesus of Nazareth. It asserted that Jesus was the Son of God, and that he was a subordinate of a higher entity, which was God himself.
Monasteries: These are religious communities that initially started back in the fifth century in Egypt. They are like a military community and under military discipline. Monasteries become a good source of stabilization for the economy. They are also centers of innovation, and often serve as schools as well.
Shiaa: Muslims belonging to the branch of Islam believing that Allah (God) vests leadership of the community in a descendant of the Prophet’s son-in-law, Ali. This is not very common in Islamic countries except for Iran – it is the second major branching of Islam.
Astrolabe: This is an inclinometer that was used by astronomers and navigators. It used the concept of trigonometric triangulation based on the position of the sun, the moon, and the earth to locate stars and/or navigate through the oceans. It was used during the Islamic Ages, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance.
Augustus: This was the honorific name of Octavian, the heir of Julius Caesar. He was founder of the Roman Principate, which was the military dictatorship that replaced