3) the Archbishop of Colognethe ,Archbishop of Mainzthe, Archbishop of Trierthe ,Count Palatine of the Rhinethe ,Duke of Saxonythe, King of Bohemiathe ,Margrave of Brandenburg
4) Albrecht Durer , Lucas Cranach, Hans Holbein
5) Philipp Melanchthon
6)Germany , Italy , spain
7) ninety-five thesis Oct. 31, 1517.
Diet of worms – 1521
The peace of Augsburg – 1555
8) Edmund Spenser , Christopher Marlowe , Philip Sidney
9) François Rabelais, Francois vILLON, Louise labe
10) martin luther, Melanchthon , Zwingli
11) landgrave Philip of hesse , duke johann the constant of Saxony , Jacob sturm of strasbourg
12)…. , Katharine von Bora , Erasmus Roterodamus
1)What is humanism? Examine northern humanism’s important figures, and humanism’s impact on education and religion.
There are a lot of kinds of humanism . I am going to describe Renaissance humanism. Generally it was created in 14 century.
Humanism can be defined as a movement that encouraged the study of the form and content of classical learning. It is interpretation of heritage of ancient Greece and Rome. Roman philosopher Cicero defined it as the liberal arts. Cicero favored this subject such as grammar , rhetoric, poetry , literature and etc , which help us to become more eloquent, thoughtful human beings. The humanist preference was to study them as much as possible in their original classical texts (mostly Latin).
There are a lot of types of Renaissance humanism and humanists. , the majority is Northern humanists. Northern humanists were able to build on the work of the great Italian scholars but also to add their own concerns as well . In the north of Europe , humanism also came to be infused with a spiritual movement of great importance . Every part of Europe produced its own brand of humanism. Conrad Celtis was one of the most influential of the German humanists as well as a major lyric poet. In 1847 Frederic III crowned him Germany’s first poet laureate. Eventually he became a professor of rhetoric at the university of Ingolstadt and later at Vienna , where he wrote , taught and died of syphilis at 49. Celtis also wrote his own histories , including his Germany Illustrated , to demonstrate the greatness of the Germans.
The most celebrated of the German humanists was Johann Reuchlin , he was interested in all aspects of knowledge . He was born in Germany at Pforzheim , also he was a great admirer of the German Humanist. Reuchlin worked for many years as chancellor , then he served as head jurist of Swabian League . His last years were spent as a professor of Greek and Hebrew. He thought that the study of Hebrew brought him close to God . In 1519 Maximilian I ordered that all Hebrew book should be confiscated . When Johann found out that he offered that Hebrew books should not be taken away , but instead should be studied more intensely by Christians . People did all they could to force Reuchlin's enemies to a restitution of his material damages. But the final decision of Rome did not indemnify Reuchlin. The contest ended . In the end of his life Reuchlin died in Stuttgart.
The Humanists also had a great effect on education. Humanists believed that human beings could be dramatically changed by education. They supported studying grammar, poetry, and history, as well as mathematics, astronomy, and music. The children that attended the schools were generally from upper-class families, though some seats were reserved for poor but talented students. Females were not usually allowed to attend but were encouraged to know history, learn dance, and appreciate poetry. Overall, Humanist education was thought as being an