Background of the study
Parenting style is one of the variable that have been studied extensively in human development.is is considered as an important determinant of several aspects of children’s outcome the notion has been related to children and adolescent academic performance,optimism,confidence,motivation,externalizing problem behavior and attention problems. Parenting style depends on behavior and attitude of parents. Parenting style is also a psychological construct which represents standard strategies parents use in raising their children. The term is a complex activity that includes many specific behaviors that work individually and collectively to influence the child. (2007 A P A)
The role of parents has been considered very important for children’s grooming ,development and learning especially in Ashaiman cluster schools. Poor parenting blamed for social deviance (Rt Reverend Francis A.K Lodonu) Tuesday January 3/2012 ‘’today’s parents are only interested in their welfare and not that of the child’’he lamented several studies have been conducted to explore and evaluate the impact of parent’s style of dealing with their children at home and their academic achievements at school both locally and internationally.
Majority of published studies on parenting style have use some variation of thebparenting style construct delineated by Baumrind (1966,1967).
A researcher in human development for that matter Baumrind (1966) has identiefied three parenting style :authoritative,permissive,and authoritarian.Authoritative parenting is characterized by high level of nurturance, involvement,sensitively,reasoning and encouragement of automy.Parents who direct the activities and decisions for their children through reasoning and discipline would be described as authoritative .conversely, permissive parenting is characterized by making few demands, exhibiting no controlling behaviors,and using minimal punishment. For example, parents who do not establish rules and guidelines for their child’s behavior would be described as possessing a permissive parenting style. Authoritarian parenting tends to fall at the other end of the continuum.
Parent characterized as authoritarian exhibit high directive behaviors ,high levels of restriction and rejection behaviors
and power-asserting behaviors. These parents tent to have a philosophy that ‘’its my way or the highway.’’ An authoritative parenting style emphasizing both responsiveness and demandingness appears superior in fostering higher academic performance have been studied primarily in children and adolescent.
Factor that contribute to effective parenting (Nine steps too more effective parenting) 1. Nurture your child’s self esteem 2. Catch kids being good 3. Set limits and be consistent with your discipline 4. Make time for your kids 5. Be a good role model 6. Make communication a priority 7. Be flexible and willing to adjust your parenting style 8. Show that your love in unconditional 9. Know your own needs and limitation as a parent.(Steven Dowshen 2011)
Having seen that there is no way they could continue their education, they are compelled to engage in all sorts of obnoxious behaviors such teenage pregnancy, use of hard drugs ,smoking ,drinking etc. these unfortunate situation cannot be blamed hundred percent(100%) on the pupils for not studying well in passing the exam. Parents and for that matter the society in totality contribute immensely in the progress of students’ academic performance.it is alleged that some parents show little or no interest in their word’s performance…