1. Outline what the issue is, giving background information.
2. Outline the ways the media has presented it (if available).
3. Outline the title, type of article, date of publication and author of the article. (if available)
You can mix step 3, 4 and 6 together (see example)
4. Identify the group/s affected by the issue (stakeholders) and whether or not the author may be bias in their opinion due to a vested interest in the issue. (mix this step in with step 3 if possible)
5. Identify the tone.
6. State the author’s main contention. (write this in your own words)
1. Analysis will be in chronological order.
2. Topic sentence identifies what aspect of the article you are talking about and if you know the name the language device being used.
3. Analyse the ways in which language is used to persuade the reader.
Explain HOW choices of language have been used to position the reader.
4. Provide evidence to support the point made. (mix this step with step 2 and 3)
Repeat this 4 step process every time you see a new language technique. Go through the entire article and do this. However, if the article is large, choose the most important language techniques to analyse. Start a new body paragraph when each paragraph in the article is finished being analysed or when your paragraph you’ve written gets too long. Use linking words between techniques.
Conclusion (at most 5 sentences long!)
1. Start your conclusion with how the writer concludes their article.
Because the writer usually changes how they write in the conclusion, it itself is a language device.
2. Summarise the most important language techniques and how the author has used them.
3. If there is an overall style of persuasion used, identify it and say how it has compelled the reader to agree with the writers arguments. (Can blend in with step 2)
Things to remember
You are not being asked to LIST the language devices. You are being assessed on how well you are able to ANALYSE the ways in which language is used to PERSUADE the reader.
Your essay must be written as a “coherently structured piece of prose” meaning that your essay must be formal, have an introduction, body paragraphs and a conclusion.
DON’T just give a general explanation of how a language technique affects the reader (eg. Statistics are used by the writer to make their argument more credible). THIS IS TOO SIMPLISTIC! You must relate your analysis to the actual article in question. (eg. These statistics are implemented by Mr Smith to further reaffirm the credibility of his argument, no doubt compelling the reader to feel as though his argument that too many chickens die in captivity is irrefutable.)
Use LINKING words to link paragraphs (eg. furthermore, conversely, alternatively, moreover)
If there has been a tonal shift (a change in the tone of the writer as the article progressed), identify it and explain WHY it was used and how the change in tone affects the reader.
Always call the author by their formal name (eg. Mr. Barille)
EXAMPLE OF LANGUAGE ANALYSIS USING THE MODEL
1. “The contentious issue of a national curriculum surfaced in the media after the National Labour Party proposed its implementation last November.”
2. “Initially many observers praised the Labour Party’s initiative, however recently there has been a backlash in the media against the proposal.”
3. “An opinion piece published in The Age