Title – This is to convey the statement of the problem and what the report resolves around.
Abstract – An abstract is a short summary used to present your main argument.
Introduction – The introduction gives the reader some basic background on the subject of the report. Also in the introduction it is important to state the objectives of what each part of the report will state.
Materials and Methods – This section must be a detailed representation of the design and set-up of the experiment that was used to collect the data. A suitable method that is clear and concise so that someone can follow the set instructions that you have stated. These steps must be detailed in such a way so that someone else can perform the experiment, these must include * Measurements taken & how they were taken. * Durations of procedures & how were they timed. * How solution(s) were prepared.
Results –The results section literally conveys the findings and raw data of your study, showing the data that you have also collected. The results must be precise.
The tables units should only be in the headings of the data collected.
The independent variable should be placed in the first column of the results table. The dependant variables are placed in the subsequent columns. On a graph the Y-axis is the dependant variable, and on the X-axis is the independent variable.
Discussion – After the results have been obtained and the graph has been drawn, the next step is to explain your findings using scientific knowledge according to the question asked at the start.
In this section it is good to talk about certain features of the experiment and the data shown. * Limitations that could have affected your results * Using scientific knowledge explain the results of your findings * If you made a prediction compare the results you obtained with your prediction that was made previously. * Perhaps talk about Random and Systematic errors and describe how this affected the results. * Answer the question that was asked at the start.
Conclusion – This section is all about paraphrasing your main findings of your study. Literature Cited (References used) – If any reference were used to use for explaining or describing processes or other means, display them so that other researches can relate to your findings using these references.
Biology experiment: Investigating the effect of surface area and volume on diffusion rate.
1. A block of coloured agar cubes (stained with a dye) have to be cut to certain dimensions to be used as model cells. A few of these may need to be made of each dimension in order to repeat the experiment.
These dimensions could be:
Or whatever dimensions that you see fit.
Agar cubes is used for these tests as it is permeable and so it acts like a cell. It is easy to cut into the required sizes and the hydrochloric acid can diffuse at an even rate through it.
I am not using any blocks bigger than 2 x 2 x 2 as a preliminary test found that it was only practical to use blocks of volume of 1.5³ or less as anything bigger than this would take longer than the amount of time that we have to do the experiment.
2. A small beaker was filled with 50+cm³ of 1 molar Hydrochloric acid. This is a sufficient volume of acid to ensure that all the block sizes are fully covered in acid when dropped into the test tubes. Add 5cm³ of HCL to the test tube.
3. One of the blocks is dropped into this test tube and the time for all the dye to disappear is noted in a table such as the one below. A stopwatch should be used to time the diffusion rate.
4. This test should be repeated for the entire surface are/volume ratio of cubes three times to ensure that concordant results are obtained. Fresh acid should be used for each block to ensure that this does not affect the experiment’s results for other cubes.