Schwartz (1992) described values as desirable, trans-situational goals, changing in significance that serves as guiding principles in people’s lives. In simpler words, values evolve from circumstances with the outside world and can change over time. They are believed to have a significant influence on the behavioural and emotional of individuals (Rokeach, 1973), also on the organisational culture (O’Reilly & Chatman, 1996).
Values can be classified into two types, which are terminal values and instrumental values. Terminal values self-sufficient end-states of existence that an individual strives to attain such as wisdom. As instrumental values refers to mode of behaviour …show more content…
In order to accommodate these different types of work personalities and values in such a manner that an individual and organisational goals are fused, a variety of work needs to be done. The mix of values indicates potential conflicting viewpoints and decision-making styles that will influence the capabilities of a group or an organisation. This is where managers of leaders come into play by understanding the differences in values, then using them to provide the framework and guidelines for being able to work together and communicate effectively with each other (Argandona, 2002). The values must be communicated to all interested parties in a manner that is easy to understand, honest and open.
It is also important for leaders and managers to understand personal values, which are important to the personnel in an organisation. This way, managers may be able to