EDF1005 M W 8 am – 9:15 am
Howard Gardner changed the way people see education. Before he came along with the theories of multiple intelligences, teachers assumed all students learned the same way. If a student did not understand or had some difficulties learning that student was categorized as stupid or retarded. Howard Gardner defines intelligence as “the capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one or more cultural settings.” (Sadker and Zittleman 37) Gardner identified 8 kinds of intelligence that more accurately defined the diverse nature of a human’s capability.
Howard Gardner was born on July 11, 1943. Gardner is an American psychologist and professor of Cognition and education at the Harvard School of Education at Harvard University. Originally a law student Gardner became inspired by Jean Piaget and began his work in developmental psychology. Gardner studied under Erik Erikson, David Riesman, and Jerome Bruner; all psychologists who helped develop the way Gardner saw the way human beings develop.
Gardner spent time in his career working with normal and gifted children, as well as brain-damaged adults. He began to develop theories on his research; in 1983 he published Frames of Mind which began to outline his theory of multiple intelligences. He is the author of twenty-nine books and hundreds of articles, all based on psychology. He developed the theory of multiple intelligences that capture the diversity of individual learners. Gardner also developed a theory of five minds and describes it in his book Five Minds for the Future; he speaks about the five new educational directions. He changed the educational world forever.
Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences focuses on the way people learn and the diverse nature of human capability. There are originally eight kinds of intelligences, not all of them are recognized in schools. The eight intelligences are: logical-mathematical, linguistic, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, spatial, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist. He goes to explain why the quality of a person’s individual performance might vary depending on different activities. Gardner still continues to develop on this theory along with his colleagues, which is how the ninth intelligence surfaced, existential intelligence.
Logical-mathematical intelligence is related to mathematical manipulations and discerning and solving logical problems. (Sadker and Zittleman) In other words, logical-mathematical intelligence means that an individual is analytical and is good with numbers as well as reasoning. Logical-mathematical intelligence can also be labeled as scientific thinking; according to Gardner this level of intelligence is found in gifted individuals. Linguistic intelligence is sensitivity to the meanings, sounds, and rhythms of words, as well as to the function of language as a whole. This kind of intelligence is also analytical and can be compared to logical intelligence. A person with damage to this area can understand words and sentences quite well but has difficulty putting words together in anything other than the simplest of sentences. (Gardner)
Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence is the ability to excel physically and to handle objects skillfully. Being in control of bodily movements in a natural thing, but those who are bodily-kinesthetic intelligent have the ability to perform in extraordinary ways, athletes and dancers are part of this group. Musical intelligence is the ability to produce pitch and rhythm, as well as to appreciate various forms of musical expression. Gardner believed that there was a biological link to particular intelligences, where certain parts of the brain play an important role in the perception and production of music.
Spatial intelligence is the ability to form a mental model of the spatial world and to maneuver and operate using that model.