Laboratory: Gas Laws
How do quantities of gases change with changing amounts, pressures, temperatures, and volumes? Balloons are containers of gas that you will use to explore such questions. Specifically, you will look at how the volume of a gas changes with temperature.
The Student Guide is the Lab Procedure to follow
Lab Report is found on this document – after the Student Guide. Fill out the Lab Report and submit the whole document to the dropbox to submit your assignment
Goals for the Lesson
Determine how a change in temperature affects the volume of a gas.
Determine values for quantities such as temperature, pressure, and volume for a gas liberated in a chemical reaction.
Graded Activities in This Lesson
Lab Report (offline, scored by teacher)
Gas Laws Virtual Lab
Link here for the Virtual Lab: http://k12.http.internapcdn.net/k12_vitalstream_com/CURRICULUM/928314/CURRENT_RELEASE/VHS_CHEM_GasLaws.html
As you read through the lesson online, use the space below to take notes. You will need your notes to study for tests.
Balloons can be used to demonstrate the behavior of gases.
Create and capture a gas.
Review the Laboratory Guidelines before conducting the lab
If you lived during the time of Robert Boyle or Joseph Guy-Lussac, you might know that gases exist, but you would have no idea what they are made of. So, what is the first thing you would study? You would study how gases behave, and hope that your findings lead to an understanding of what a gas is. You would try to figure out the relationship between gas and temperature, for example, and see how the gas–temperature relationships vary among different kinds of gases. The result would be a series of laws that describe gases—and that is exactly what happened historically.
The gas laws were all discovered before the concept of atoms and molecules became established. The gas laws explain the relationship among the volume, temperature, and pressure of a gas. We know now that the gas laws can be explained by the kinetic theory of gases—that gases are made of molecules that move at rates that are dependent on the temperature and pressure of the gas, and that changes in the temperature, pressure, and volume of a sample of gas are all interrelated.
The key question to think about during the lab is: How does a change in temperature affect the volume of a gas? How can you determine the temperature, pressure, and volume of gas liberated in a chemical reaction?
Think about what you already know about balloons. Balloons are wonderful gas containers that you can use to study gases. You know more about balloons than you think. What happens when hot air fills a balloon? The balloon expands. From your experience, what happens as a balloon is rapidly cooled?
Write a hypothesis in if–then form that predicts what will happen if a balloon filled with air is cooled. Write an additional hypothesis that predicts what will happen if the gas in a balloon is heated.
This lab is done using a virtual lab environment. While some movements in the lab have been simplified, the procedural steps and results are what one would expect if doing this in an actual laboratory. Data will vary from trial to trial as it typically would in this type of experiment.
Student Guide - Experimental Procedure:
This experimental procedure is divided into three distinct parts. Each part has its own setup and procedure.
Hints on calculations:
Kelvin = Celsius + 273
volume = cm3 , to find Volume, Take cm measurement and cube it; example 7cm was found, take 7x7x7 = 343 cm3 for volume
1 mL = 1 cm3
1. Complete the Part 1 Data Table (on the lab report) as you work through Part 1 of the lab
2. Good laboratory work usually involves doing several trials, 3 laboratory trials is required
1. Open the Gas Laws Virtual Lab.
2. Click View the Tutorial.
3. Complete the tutorial