HUM Chapter03 Essay

Submitted By Taye-Tyler
Words: 443
Pages: 2

Chapter Three:

Classical Greece and the
Hellenistic Period
Culture and Values, 6th Ed.
Cunningham and Reich

The Classical Ideal
Classical period (479-323 B.C.E.)
Contributions of “pioneers”
Search for order and control
– “Nothing too much”

Value of human potential, capability

Athens
Exemplar of human achievement
– Defeat of Persians (479 B.C.E. )

Democratic Government
– Ecclesia, boule, magistracies

Delian League
– Peloponnesian War (431- 404 B.C.E.)

Pericles

Drama Festivals of Dionysus
Theater = religious ritual
3 Tragedies + Satyr Play
– Plots
– Actors and props
– Function of Chorus

Athenian Tragic Dramatists
– Aeschylus
– Sophocles
– Euripides

[Image 3.5]
The ancient theater at Delphi

Aeschylus (525-456 B.C.E. )
Optimistic philosophy / themes
Orestia Trilogy (458 B.C.E. )
– Agamemnon, The Libation Bearers,
The Eumenides
– Growth of civilization through reason and order

Sophocles (496-406 B.C.E. )
Friend of Pericles
Consequences of human error
Most traditionally religious in theme
Antigone, Oedipus the King

Euripides (484-406 B.C.E. )
Realistic, rational
– Social, political, religious injustice
– Concern for psychological truth

Suppliant Women, Helen, Iphigenia in Taurus, Bacchae

Aristophanes (450-385 B.C.E.)
Athenian comic poet
Political satire + fantasy
– The Birds
– Lysistrata

The Fall of Athens
Philip of Macedon (359 B.C.E. )
– Macedonian Empire

League of Corinth
Alexander the Great

Philosophy in the Late Classical Period
Socrates
– Fate of the individual
– Questioning traditional values
– The Socratic problem

Xenophon
– Apology, Symposium, Memorabilia

Philosophy in the Late Classical Period
Plato
– Disciple of Socrates
• Apology, Crito, Phaedo

– The Academy
– Political theory / ideal society
• Theory of Forms
• Inspired by chaos of 4th c. Greek politics

Philosophy in the Late Classical Period
Aristotle
– Pupil of Plato
– The Lyceum
– Platonist vs. Aristotelian
– Metaphysics, Physics, Rhetoric,
Poetics
– “Master of those who know.”

Music in the Classical Period
Popularity of instrumental music
Doctrine of Ethos
– Plato
– Aristotle

Pythagorean principals
– Octaves, fourths, tetrachords, modes

Rhythmic instrumentation…