Orem (cited in Cutcliffe, etcetera, 2010), further classified five areas of nursing practice as entering into and maintaining a relationship with the patients, families and groups, and determination of if and how of helping a patient through nursing. Other areas of practices are responding to patient’s needs, desires, and requests, and prescribing, providing, and regulating direct helps to client, including coordinating and integrating nursing into the daily living, healthcare, social and educational service needs of the patient. She also outlined the four goals of nursing as reducing patient’s self-care demand so that he or she can provide them alone, increasing patient self-care capacity or potential, equipping the significant others in providing care for the person who is self-care deficient, and the nurse directly meeting the self-care demand of the patient.
Health is a term that described the state of wholeness or integrity of human beings (Orem 1980: 118, cited in Cutcliffe, etcetera, 2010). According her when there is no structural or functional change that interferes with human functioning due to temporary indispositions, brief illness, and injury, there is healthy, but any deviation from normal function or structure of the body is referred to as an absence of health in the sense of wholeness or integrity. She claimed that health is integrated and holistic concept involving the patient or person’s mental life, physiological, psycho-physiological mechanism, and their biological structure including personal and social life. In addition, health is the responsibility of the individual and the society.
Orem (980: 118, cited in Cutcliffe, etcetera, 2010), posits that a Person is unitary sentient being capable of making choices and pursuing goals and all human beings shares the same universal care needs. Saying that self-care is requirement of every human being irrespective of age and gender, and that to be human is to be in need for self-care. Self-care is voluntary but it is right and responsible for a person to engage in self-care in order to maintain his or her health, life, and well-being. In her view, you can acquire self-care through experiences, interpersonal relationships, and culture. She further asserted that people who take action to meet their self-care demand or care for their dependents have specialised ability for action.
The environment of the patient in Orem’s model (the nursing environment) refers to the physical (external to the patient) environment and the person psychosocial environment. The model specifically states that the nurse should provide an environmental condition that promotes the development of the patient. This development includes atmospheres that motivate the patient being helped in formulating the goals and