1 The body is organised on four structural levels. List the four levels beginning with the lowest level.
Cells > Tissues > Organs > Systems.
2 Cells are specialised to carry out different functions. Give three examples.
Muscle cells are able to shorten in length.
Red blood cells are able to transport oxygen
Cells of mucous membranes are able to secrete mucus.
3 What is a tissue?
A tissue is:
- Group of cells, similar in structure, work together to carry out a particular task.
- The structure & function that it performs allows it to be classified into one of four basic types.
4 List the four basic tissue types.
Epithelial, Connective, muscular and nervous tissue.
5 What is an organ?
An organ is:
- a body structure made up of two or more types of tissue.
- the tissues work together to carry out a particular task.
6 The highest level of organisation is the system. What is a system?
A group of organs that work together to carry out a particular task.
7 List some organs that make up the respiratory system.
Lungs, trachea, bronchioles, bronchi, etc.
8 What is the role of epithelial tissue?
It lines, e.g. the outer layer of skin is an epithelial tissue; lines organs, inner layer of the heart, stomach, intestines and other hollow organs are made up of epithelium.
9 Where would you find epithelial tissue?
- In the lining inside your mouth
- The outside of the lung.
- Inner lining of the stomach and intestines.
- Outer layer of the skin.
- Covering and inner lining of the heart.
- Covers the outside of the kidneys, and lines the fine tubules inside the kidneys.
10 What are the characteristics of epithelial tissue?
- They are made up of cells varying from thin fat; to column-shaped and cube-shaped depending on the particular tissue. Cells inside your mouth are thin, flat epithelial cells. They fit together very closely and form a very smooth surface.
11 What is the role of connective tissue?
- provides support for the body, helps to hold all the body parts together.
12 What are the characteristics of connective tissue?
- The cells are not close together like in epithelial tissue.
- Separated from each other by large amounts of material that is not made of cells.
13 What is ‘matrix’?
- The non-cellular material that separates the connective tissue.
14 Give some examples of connective tissue and describe where they are found.
- Bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments and fat storage tissue.
- Blood counts as CT.
- Cartilage: external ear, tip of nose, joints.
- Blood in vessels, flows through body.
- Loose connective tissue – holds most tissues and organs in position.
- Fat storage tissue under the skin.
15 Describe the shape of muscle cells.
- Long, thin also called muscle fibres.
16 How does muscle tissue respond to a stimulus?
- They contract and become shorter.
17 List the three types of muscle tissue.
- Skeletal (muscles, attached to bones)
- Involuntary (cells that we cannot contract voluntarily)
18 Where are skeletal muscles found?
- Attached to bone.
19 What type of control do we have over skeletal muscles?
- We are able to move them voluntarily, and can feel them in our arms and legs.
20 Where are involuntary (smooth) muscles found?
- Found: walls of the stomach and intestines, walls of blood vessels, in the iris of the eyes, in the uterus, etc.
21 What is the role of the heart…