HUMAN FACTORS After much study, this is the most appropriate definition of Human factors: That which is concerned to optimize the relationship and their activities by systematic application of the human sciences, integrated within the framework of systems engineering with the underlying objectives of the effectiveness of the system, Which includes safety, efficiency and the well being of the individual.
ERGONOMICS was derived from the Greek words ergon(work) nomos(natural law) by the late Professor Murrell whom later wrote his text book on this subject and entitled it the same the same. Professor Murrell later defined it as “the study of man in his working environment
As our society becomes increasingly mechanized, more and more people are suffering from repetitive strain injuries. From debilitating carpal tunnel syndrome and tendonitis, to the chronic neck pain that everyone who works at a computer takes for granted, we are all showing the effects.
In recent years, ergonomists have attempted to define postures which minimize unnecessary static work and reduce the forces acting on the body. All of us could significantly reduce our risk of injury if we could adhere to the following ergonomic principles
• All work activities should permit the worker to adopt several different, but equally healthy and safe postures
• Where muscular force has to be exerted it should be done by the largest appropriate muscle groups available.
• Work activities should be performed with the joints at about mid-point of their range of movement. This applies particularly to the head, trunk, and upper limbs.
UH OH A PROBLEM THOUGH a serious problem, a challenge to conventional ergonomic thinking: In order to put these recommendations into practice, a person would have to be a skilled observer of his or her own joint and muscle and kinesiology functioning and would have to be able to change his or her posture to a healthier one at will. This highly refined sensory awareness comes from education/ training. In order to derive the benefits of ergonomic research, one must learn how to observe a body at work in a new way.
SHEL MODEL IN RELATION TO HUMAN FACTORS
SHEL CONCEPTUAL MODEL
The SHEL model is a very good tool utilized to clarify the scope of Human factors. This models’ name comes from the component facets of the model. Below are the Component names and a definition. Later I will explain the interaction between the components.
There are four components to the SHEL model:
Liveware= L Software= S Environment= E Hardware= H
The basis for this model in my opinion is to allow man to study the interactions, consequences and ramifications between the component s applied to a work environment.
LIVERWARE At the center of the model is man. This is the most valuable and flexible component. In our class it is fair to generalize this liveware component also can cause distress or breakdown in the system.
HARDWARE is the first of the components that requires interfacing with the characteristics of man and the machine or system. One layman example is the design of seats and seating configurations based on the sitting characteristics of the human body
SOFTWARE Standard Operating Procedures(SOP’s), Industry generally accepted practices, manuals, checklists, performance charts maps, approach plates Computer programs are example of this component
ENVIRONMENT Early on in aviation (I.E. Orville and Wilbur) the environment consisted of a nice soft set of sand dunes and a breeze. Through out the last hundred years pilots are now confronted with extreme altitudes, gravity, pressurization, lack of oxygen…