Human Geography Notes 8 Essay

Submitted By Lauren-Boyles
Words: 452
Pages: 2

Human Geography Notes 8
Pre-Industrial and Post-Industrial
High levels of economic production will lower birth rates
How do populations change?
Government policies
Expansive population policies
Anti-capatalists ideologies …. (etc. see above ^)
What is the relationship between population and resources?
What is migration and mobility?
What factors contribute to migration and mobility?
What is migration in the context of ….?
What is the relationship between population and resources?
Theories of population
Is population a cause of environmental degradation (famine)?
Thomas Malthus -> Malthusianism (Yes)
Ester Boserup – “population -> innovation” (No)
Paul Elrich – “Neo-malthusian” (Yes)
Julian Simon – human ingenuity as greatest resource (No)
Malthus’s An Essay on the Principles of Population (1789)
Food supplies grow arithmetically
Population grew geometrically
Population would outpace food production and cause famine and death (food supplies regulate population)
Proven wrong, but still influential
Food production not spatially confined (trade)
Agricultural technologies increased production
New food crops
Ester Boseerup – “Population -> innovation”
Anthropologist, population increases innovation and “intensification” to accommodate needs
Paul Ehrlich – Neo-malthusian and global environmental change
“population bomb” – resources static
Julian Simon – human capacity the “ultimate resource” – resources change over time because of human innovation!
Gender, Literacy, and Development
Women and girls education (literacy) lowers total fertility rate and decreases infant mortality
Increased capacity to learn health information (and lowers infant mortality)
Increased economic activity of women in household (employment, status outside the home) decreases need for children later in life
Decreased numbers of pregnancies (and TFR)
Increased economic earnings by women disproportionately go to children’s welfare (and decreases infant mortality)
Economic development – development is the “best contraceptive”
Increases health infrastructure
Increases incomes