Notes On Human Physiology

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Human Physiology – Spring 2012
Chapter 7 Study Questions 1. Group 1 should become experts in peptide proteins (synthesis, storage, release, modification, transport, and mechanism of action). 2. Group 2 should become experts in simple endocrine reflexes (for example parathyroid hormone). 3. Group 3 should become experts in the relationship of the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary (hormones involved and how they act on each other). 4. Group 4 should become experts in long-loop and short-loop feedback. 5. Group 5 should become experts in synergism and permissiveness (give examples) 6. Group 6 should become experts in hypersecretion and hyposecretion and the effects of both. 7. What are the main processes controlled by hormones and how do hormones act on cells to carry out these processes? 8. What types of cells produce and secrete hormones? 9. How are hormones transported? 10. What are some defining characteristics of hormones? 11. Describe how hormones initiate responses in their target cells. 12. How can the effect of hormones be stopped once it has begun? 13. What does the half-life of a hormone refer to? 14. What are the three chemical classes of proteins and what is their composition? Which is the most common type? 15. Where is a peptide hormone synthesized, modified, and released (i.e. what organelles are responsible for each)? 16. What is the half-life of a peptide hormone? 17. How do peptide hormones create a response in target cells, and how fast is that response? 18. What organs/glands produce steroid hormones? What organelles are responsible for synthesis of steroid hormones? 19. Why are steroid hormones not stored in cells like peptide hormones? How does this affect the timing of synthesis? 20. How are steroid hormones transported in the blood? How does this mechanism affect the half-life of a steroid hormone? 21. How do steroid hormones exert an effect on their target cell? 22. What are the two categories of tyrosine-based hormones and how do they affect a target cell? 23. In simple endocrine reflexes, what acts as the sensor? Give some examples of hormones that operate by simple reflexes. 24. Describe the three major groups of neurohormones. 25. Explain the difference between the anterior and posterior pituitary glands in terms of their anatomy and the types of hormones they secrete. 26. What are the hormones stored and released by the posterior pituitary? What do they