Human Population Bio Study Guide Essay examples

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Human Population Bio. Study Guide
Chapter 2
Time
Linear
Going from point A to Point B in a single line
Ex. Past  Future
Cyclical
Moving at a constant pace in circles continuously repeating
Ex. Calendar, Seasons
Western Ideas
Greco-Roman
Multiple cycles (Beg. End, Beg. End etc.)
Cyclical
Juedo Christian
Single Cycle
Linear
*Both the Greco-Roman and Judeo Christian believed in this cycle -Golden Age (Beginning- Adam & Eve etc.) -Degeneration (Eve making Adam eat apple) -Cataclysm (Apocalypses) -Divine Intervention(Rapture)
Idea of Decline
Since the beginning (Golden Age) humans have declined.
Modern Western Ideas
Deep time (billions of years)
Time and space created at a single point
Big Bang
Linear movement since the big bang
Idea of Progress
Forward movement. From Point A to Point B
Belief that the world has improved steadily over time

Humans & Time
Plato
Believed that the creator is perfect
Therefore all things created by him will be perfect and good
Because of this one cannot change
Meaning there is no evolution
Aristotle
Believed in continuity
A gradual transition from inanimate to animate
Scale of nature
All things in the natural world are somehow related
The Great Chain of Being
1. Linear Gradation
2. Ancient (this idea is very old)
3. Permanent (fixed)- Fixity of species, no mobility in scale
4. Divinely Ordained – God is the one who designated the ranks
5. No “Missing Links”- Everything has a place on chain
Theories of Evolution
Lamark
Early 19th c.
Organisms could progress
Spontaneous Generation
Mechanism
Inheritance of required traits** Lamarkian trademark
Lamrkian Evolution
1. All Organisms Have Needs (True)
2. Needs lead to habitual behaviors (True)
3. Differential use of body parts (Using some more than others)(True)
4. Theory of Use/Disuse (Use it or lose it)(???)
5. Inheritance of required traits (False) **Lamark
Darwinian Evolution
The differences of Darwinian evolution from Lamarkian
Mid 19th c.
Evidence
Mechanism
Natural selection** Darwinian Trademark
Theories of Evolution
1. Inheritance
2. Variation
3. Overpopulation (creates…)
4. Competition
5. Natural Selection – Cannot have selection if there is no variation
Medel
Mid 19th c.
Early 20th c.
Modern Synthesis- Combine Genetics w/ D. theory
Evolution
Evidence
1. Adaptation
a. Result of selection
b. Ex. Predator avoidance
i. Concealment ii. Mimicry iii. Imperfect adapation ( panda- false thumb)
2. Paleontology
a. Continual change over time
3. Biogeography- Geographical distribution of living things
a. Uneven distribution- (there is an uneven distribution of animals throughout the world meaning that somehow these animals adapted to life among their environment)
b. Adaptation
4. Comparative Anatomy
a. Homologous structures
i. Similar Structure, Different Function. ** Means shared ancestry
b. Analogous structures
i. Different Structure, Similar Function ** Superficial similarity due to similar function ii. Independent selection
c. Vestigial structures
i. “Evolutionary Baggage” ii. Once needed at one point, now uneccesary iii. Ex: Whale – Pelvis, Femur; Humans – Coccyx, Ear muscles, Third Molar
5. Comparative Embryology
a. Conservation- Visible characteristics shared in different embryos
6. Artificial Selection
a. Change achieved by human selection

Chapter 3
The Chemical Basis of Life
Carbohydrates
Fats
Proteins*
Nucleic Acids (DNA & RNA)*
DNA=Thymine; RNA=Uracil
AT CG – DNA
AU CG – RNA
* Most important
Proteins
They direct chemical reactions through their role as enzymes
Also act as hormones and transmitters
Made up of sub-units called Amino Acids
A proteins Structure depends on its amino acid sequence
A proteins Function depends on its structure
Nucleic Acids
DNA is combined with protein material to form chromosomes
DNA Replication
Parent Cell Divides into 2 daughter cells
DNA Subunits –> Nucleotides
Nucleotides consist of a sugar, phosphate group and a nucleotide group
It is the order in which nucleotides are linked in DNA that…