Freud believed the humans conscious consist of three parts: The Idle, the Ego, and the Superego. Although Freuds methods and practices have drawn years amount of criticism in the 20th and 21st century. His concepts and ideas mark him as one of the great founders of modern psychology.
The Harlem Renaissance In the early 20th century, African Americans were a repressed culture. Racism, was a rampant problem and over 5 million. African-American migrates to Northern States seeking for a better environment. New York city took in a great number of migrating African Americans seeking opportunity. A great many found themselves living in Harlem, and in this part of Manhattan a great cultural rebirth happened. African Americans collaborated to produce arts of music, poetry, artwork, and all other sorts. The works done in this period are still revered as towering examples of African American culture to this day.
The first works of science fiction can be dated back to Jules Verne in the mid-19 century. Since then many authors have been influenced by his work, like H.G. Wells, and have produced landmark works in the genre, like "War of the Worlds". The genre was greatly influenced in the 20th Century with the advent of space travel. The novel "The Sentinel" was an example of this, a story of alien influence in the creation of humans on our desire to answer our questions of creation that leads us into exploration of our own Moon and space. Stanley Kubrick expanded on this novel with his landmark movie "2001: A Space Odyssey".
The post war era was permeated with a profound pessimism in our own rationality. The travesties we had enacted on ourselves on the global scale had people doubting any existence of a higher order or divine plan, and that we were as destructive and irrational as any other animal. From this, Existentialism was born. It's leading proponent, Jean-Paul Sartre, believed that we as people are influenced by no higher order or thought, and that we are completely responsible for every action we take. Existentialism argued that there was no great meaning in the world, just people making their own choices going on in life.