Humanities Review Essay

Submitted By katkabel
Words: 2657
Pages: 11

Rome, Greece, Islam, Fall of Classical Civs Review by Kat Kabel and Nicole Levy

Humanities
Greek and Roman Architecture
Styles
● Doric







most unadorned style sturdy, dignified, masculine no base tapered shaft entasis (fatter in the middle so they look straight)
20 flutes
■ ex: Parthenon

● Ionic
○ slender, graceful, ornate, feminine
○ volute on capital (look like Princess Leia buns)
○ tiered base
○ slimmer
○ shaft not tapered
○ 24 flutes on columns
● Corinthian
○ most popular in Rome
○ acanthus leaves on capital
○ hellenistic
○ bell shaped capital

facade vocab:
● pediment­ the triangular upper part of the front of the building, held up by columns. has high relief sculptures
● frieze­ a broad horizontal band of sculpted decoration below pediment, has low relief sculptures ● metope­ a square space between triglyphs in a Doric frieze where the sculptures go
● triglyph­ tablet in a Doric frieze with three vertical grooves

temple floorplan vocab:
1. stereobate­ lowest tier of temple
2. stylobate­ main floor
3. colonnade­ row of columns

4. pronaos­ the porch, under the roof but not in the main part
5. naos (or cella)­ inner part of temple where the shrine or whatever would be

Roman architecture
● ARCHES­ allow us to span more space w/o using so many posts (came from etruscans, but romans perfected it)
○ keystone­ stone in the middle, allows arch to bear weight
● barrel vault­ tunnel of arches
● domes­ go look up fuckin domes okay?
● ex: Pantheon (temple to all gods) dope ass dome
● corinthian columns
● aqueduct­ bridge thing that moves water

Buildings to know
● Parthenon (athens)
○ doric style
○ built in acropolis by Pericles (the mastermind behind the acropolis
○ temple for athena
● Erechtheum (athens)
○ famous for Porch of the Maidens
○ features caryatids­ sculpted female figure serving as

an architectural support taking the place of a column, holds entablature on her head
(I CAME UP WITH FUNNY WAY TO REMEMBER: It’s lady pillars so… Ladies give men ERECH(tions)THEUM)

● Pantheon (rome)
○ has a giant ass dome, only light source is huge oculus (opening at top)
○ corinthian columns support exterior portico
● Colosseum (rome)
○ uses tons of arches and barrel vaults
○ used for entertainment
○ 1st level: doric columns, 2nd level: ionic columns,
3rd level: corinthian columns
● Pont du Gard (nîmes, france)
○ aqueduct, supplied city with water
○ built during reign of Augustus, it was a roman city
○ 3 rows of arches, goes over the river Gard

Philosophy (SPA and some others)
Socrates
● socratic method­ ask people questions about shit so they come to a deeper understanding of the subject
● called the ‘gadfly of athens’ bc he would just ask random people questions and keep bugging them about philosophical things
● there are correct answers in life, they can be discovered through dialogue and contemplation ● believed in absolute set of moral laws, we must be self aware
● didn’t write anything, we know about him bc plato wrote his ideas down
● forced to drink hemlock and died bc gov thought he was corrupting the youth by making them think and question things

Plato
● socrates’ student, taught aristotle
● dialectical method­ discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject, who wish to establish the truth of the matter guided by reasoned arguments ● his works are dialogues, they look like plays
● Theory of Forms
○ demiurge­ creator god thing, made the worlds
○ world of ideas­ the perfect world
○ receptacle­ the world we live in, it’s imperfect
○ we were once in the world of ideas before trapped in human bodies so we’re able to judge things bc we’ve seen perfect, we’re searching for it/trying to create it
○ goal of education is to enlighten us about the world of ideas
● 3 parts of the human soul the soul is divine oooh (ノ◕ヮ◕)ノ*:・゚✧
○ reason­ governing, logical, rational part.…