Hw 1 Essay

Submitted By mkasbekar
Words: 1526
Pages: 7

Part 1 of 6 - Human food choices
Observation: Modern humans consume large amounts of candy and sugary soft drinks, despite the fact that there are clear negative consequences to this behavior, such as tooth decay and obesity.

Question: Why do modern humans consume these foods?
The following are hypotheses that represent possible answers to this question. Each one best fits into the category of one of Tinbergen's four questions. For each, indicate which of Tinbergen's questions it is about by typing the appropriate 2-letter code (either upper or lower case is fine) in the blank provided. The codes are:
PD = Proximate Developmental ("How does it develop?")
PC = Proximate Causal ("What mechanisms cause it?")
UH = Ultimate Historical ("How did it evolve?")
UF = Ultimate Fitness ("What is its fitness value?")

Question 1 of 30
1.0 Points

People crave the sweet taste of candy and soft drinks
Question 2 of 30
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Individuals who like sweet foods forage more efficiently because they meet their energy needs more quickly.
Question 3 of 30
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Modern humans begin feeding sweet foods to their children at a young age, leading to a lasting preference for sweet foods.
Question 4 of 30
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People learn from experience that sweet taste is pleasurable and consequently seek out these foods, which they know to be sweet.
Question 5 of 30
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The sugar in candy and soft drinks is a rich fuel source which helps to meet energy requirements
Question 6 of 30
1.0 Points

Humans inherited the taste preferences of their primate ancestors, which depended on sweet fruits for food
Question 7 of 30
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The sensory input from taste receptors on the tongue to selected brain cells leads to a pleasing sensation of sweetness.
Question 8 of 30
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The genetic information in our bodies orchestrates the development of nerve cells that provide perceptions of of sweetness and pleasure.

Part 2 of 6 - Capuchin monkey leaf rubbing behavior
Observation: Capuchin monkeys often seek out and then vigorously rub the leaves of specific plants on their fur and skin.

Question: Why do Capuchin monkeys do this?
The following are hypotheses that represent possible answers to this question. Each one best fits into the category of one of Tinbergen's four questions. For each, indicate which of Tinbergen's questions it is about by typing the appropriate 2-letter code (either upper or lower case is fine) in the blank provided. The codes are:
PD = Proximate Developmental ("How does it develop?")
PC = Proximate Causal ("What mechanisms cause it?")
UH = Ultimate Historical ("How did it evolve?")
UF = Ultimate Fitness ("What is its fitness value?")

Question 9 of 30
1.0 Points

Doing so generates a pleasant, soothing feeling on the skin
Question 10 of 30
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The monkeys have an innate (unlearned) interest in and recognition of these kinds of leaves and innate motivation to rub them on their skin
Question 11 of 30
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Doing so improves the monkeys’ survival by discouraging arthropod pests (e.g., fleas, ticks, mosquitos) that carry disease
Question 12 of 30
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The common ancestor of Capuchin and all other New World (Central and South American) monkeys possessed this trait, and it has subsequently been inherited by modern Capuchins
Question 13 of 30
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Doing so improves the appearance of the fur, thereby making the monkeys that do this more attractive to potential mates
Question 14 of 30
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Youngsters learn from their mothers and siblings to seek out these leaves and rub them on their skin
Question 15 of 30
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Doing so masks their scent, making them less conspicuous to predators that search using their senses of smell
Question 16 of 30
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The leaves have a pleasing smell to the monkeys, so they like to roll around in them and rub them on themselves
Question 17 of 30
1.0 Points

Doing so makes their fur smell attractive to…