Hydraulic Fracturing Essay

Submitted By SelahMosley
Words: 1129
Pages: 5

Name: Selah Mosley CVSR Subject: Earth Science
Class: 210 Date: December 12th, 2014
Hydraulic Fracturing

Abstract: The oil and gas industry has been using hydraulic fracturing (also known as hydrofracturing and fracking) a way to boost hydrocarbon production since1947. Recent advances in fracturing technologies are responsible for the latest hydrocarbon production boom in the U.S. The process of hydro fracturing is where fluids are pumped at high pressure underground to fracture a formation and release trapped oil and gas. This paper reviews the process of hydraulic fracturing, the environmental and economic effects of hydraulic fracturing, and the different characteristics that come along with this process.

Table of Contents
Paragraph 1. Introduction………………………………………………………………………. 1
Paragraph 2. What is Hydraulic Fracturing? .................................................................................. 1
Paragraph 3. What is Hydraulic Fracturing Used For? .................................................................. 1
Paragraph 4. Economic Effects…………………………………………………………………... 2
Paragraph 5.Environmental Impacts ………………………………………………………….. . .2
Paragraph 6.Different Types of Wells ………………………………………………………….. 2
Paragraph 7. Pros and Cons ……………………………………………………………………... 3
Paragraph 8. Hydraulic Fracturing Myths ………………………………………………………. 3
Paragraph 9. More Facts……………………………………………………………………….... 3
Paragraph 10. Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………. 4

Paragraph 1: Introduction: In today’s world sources of energy are becoming increasingly scarce. Many experts believe that hydraulic fracturing or “fracking” is an alternative that will create a clean source of energy for the future. The U.S. has a vast amount of natural gas reserved that is viable as a result of advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies enabling greater access to gas in “shale formations”. Paragraph 2: What is Hydraulic Fracturing? : Hydraulic fracturing is the process of drilling and injecting fluid into the ground at a high pressure in order to fracture shale rocks and release natural gas inside and extract oils. During the process of the natural gas wells being drilled, millions of gallons of water, sand and chemicals are pumped underground to ensure that the rock is broken and the gas is released. After a well has been drilled, and a steel pipe has been inserted in the well bore, the fracturing process begins. This process usually occurs within the target zones that contain oil or gas, so that when the fracturing fluid is injected into the well it flows through the perforations (and aperture passing through or into something) into the target zones. At this point, the amount of pressure causes the formation to crack or fracture. Once the fractures have been created, injection stops and the fluids begin to flow back towards the surface. Fracturing fluids that returns to the surface are referred to as “flow back” and these wastes are typically stored in open pits or tanks at the well site prior to disposal. Paragraph 3. What is Hydraulic Fracturing Used For? : Hydraulic fracturing enables the extraction of natural gas and oil from rock formation deep below the Earth’s surface. The main industrial use of fracking is in stimulating production from oil and gas wells, but it is also applied to disposing waste by injecting into rocks, to measure stress in the Earth and it is used as a means of enhancing waste remediation, usually hydrocarbon waste or spills. This technique is used in a number of countries, including the U.S., Australia, and South Africa. Paragraph 4. Economic Effects: Depending on the geological characteristics of the formation, specific technologies such as hydraulic fracturing are required because certain resources have lower permeability than conventional gas formation. Hydraulic fracturing is known as one of the key methods to make extraction economically viable. Sources say that as a result, the U.S.…