Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is when the force of the blood against your artery walls is high enough to possibly cause health problems. Hypertension is a result of homeostatic imbalance; the imbalance can be cause by internal or external factors, in the cardiovascular system. There are two types of hypertension, primary hypertension which develops gradually with no identifiable cause, and secondary hypertension develops because of an underlying condition and can appear suddenly.
There are some risk factors for hypertension that cannot be avoided. The older a person gets the higher the risk. African Americans and people with a family history are at a greater risk. Some risk factors that you can control; staying a healthy weight, not using tobacco, exercising, watching your stress level, getting enough vitamins and limiting alcohol intake. Failure to control your hypertension can lead to other problems; ischemic heart disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, heart failure, aortic aneurysms, atherosclerosis, pulmonary embolism, cognitive impairment, dementia, chronic kidney disease, hypertensive retinopathy, and hypertensive nephropathy.
The hypothalamus is what controls the regulation of blood pressure. The heart rate, blood vessel dilation, water balance, ambient temperature, metabolic rate, respiratory rate, detoxification, hormones, blood sugar levels, and disease all have to be in homeostatic balance in order to maintain normal blood pressure. The baroreceptor reflex is the quickest acting mechanism that homeostasis uses to regulate blood pressure. The adrenal gland also acts fast by secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine. If long term control is needed the reninagiotensin-aldosterone mechanism is the most important.
The negative feedback system is one of the most important techniques for maintaining homeostasis