Ib Abnormality Notes Essay

Submitted By dawong
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Pages: 4

abnormaility, realibility and validity and ethics
To what extend do biological factors influence abnormal behaviour?
To what extent do cognitive factors influence abnormal behaviour?
To what extent do sociocultural factors influence abnormal behaviour?
Evaluate psychological research (studies/theories) relevant to the study of one abnormal behaviour.
Diathesis-stress model explanation
The diathesis-stress model is a way of explaining how people end up suffering from mental disorders by assuming that mental disorders come from the interaction of two factors. These factors includes a person’s genetics (nature) and their life experience (nurture). The premise underlying the “diathesis-stress” model is that a person is more likely to suffer an illness if he or she has a particular diathesis (i.e., vulnerability or susceptibility) and is under a high level of stress. Diathesis factors that have been studied include family history of substance abuse or mental illness; individual psychological characteristics such as hostility or impulsivity; biological characteristics (e.g., cardiovascular reactivity, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responsivity); and environmental characteristics such as childhood maltreatment or low socioeconomic status. Diathesis factors are generally assumed to be relatively stable but not necessarily permanent Stress vulnerability model (new version of diathesis-stress model)
The new version of the diathesis-stress model states that the onset and symptoms of mental disorders is influenced by three interacting factors
1. Vulnerability factors: Biological factors, such as genes, that may predispose an individual to a disorder
2. Environmental factors: Stressors and events in life that may influence the symptoms and onset of the disorder
3. Protective factors: Factors that may protect the individual against development of a disorder (e.g. social support, medication)

Examine the concepts of normality and abnormality
Normality is when one is within limits of “normal” functioning.

Abnormal behaviour presents psychologists with a difficult task: it is difficult to define and therefore it is difficult to diagnose as it is based on the symptoms that people report or exhibit. There are four definitions of abnormality: statistical infrequency, deviation from social norms, dysfunctional behaviour and deviation from ideal mental health.

Rosenhan and Seligman’s critera to determine what behaviour is normal and what is not is
1. Personal distress (experience unpleasant emotions)
2. Maladaptiveness (behaviour that interferes with our responsibility)
3. Irrationality (behaviour that has no rational basis)
4. Unpredictability (impulse behaviour)
5. Statistical Infrequent (deviation from statistical norm)
6. Observer discomfort (behaviour that causes discomfort to others)
7. Violation of moral and ideal standards

Rosenhan – investigate issues in diagnosing and classifying mental disorder
Covert Case Study
Had participants state they heard a “dull thud” and thus all were admitted into a mental ward with the diagnosis of schizophrenia. They did normal actions, but they were recorded as abnormal behaviour. Real patients knew they were fakes, doctors did not.
-ethics (deception), bias, max contol, C/E, generalize

JHS – to see the effects of race and depression on evaluations by Euro American therapists
Experiment IV: Rate DV: diagnosis * E-A rated depressed A-A rated depressed and anti social
De Nardo
Discuss the validity and reliability of diagnosis
Valitdity – extent to which diagnosis is accurate , difficult in assessing disorder due to the fact that factors may be different to different people, or that the connections between symptoms and disorders are not concrete.
JHS – to see the effects of race and depression on evaluations by Euro American therapists
Experiment IV: Rate DV: diagnosis * E-A