Prognosis - prediction
Congenital - birth/born with
Iatrogenic - illness/infection from healthcare facility b/c of intervention
Nosocomial - hospital acquired infection
Xenobiotics - substances foreign to the body (carcinogens)
Hypertrophy - cells increase in size (working out)
Hyperplasia - increase in cell number (disease cancer, omegaly)
Necrosis - associated w/ inflammation. Have to have blood supply to have inflammation. Cell death that provokes inflammation in surrounding tissue
Apoptosis - not associated w/ inflammation. Programmed cell death. Normal part of cell life cycle.
Type 1 hypersensitivity - associated w/ mast cells
Type 2 hypersensitivity - associated w/ macrophages in tissues
Type 3 hypersensitivity - associated w/ neutrophils
Type 4 hypersensitivity - associated w/ lymphocytes and macrophages
Pruritis - itching
Urticaria - rash
Brochospasm - constriction of bronchials
Angioedema - rapid swelling of tissues
Syncope - loss of consciousness
Hypoxemia - lack of oxygen in arterial blood
Hypoxia - insufficient oxygen at cellular level
Hypoventilation - slow/shallow respiratory rate
Ischemia - inadequate blood supply to an organ
Hypocapnia - low CO2 level
Hemolytic disease of the newborn (Rh incompatibility) - direct antigen-antibody hypersensitivity reaction between mom and fetus causing fetal RBC destruction. Caused by maternal alloantibodies which target paternally inherited antigens. Rh+ cannot mix with Rh-. If Rh- mother pregnant again with an Rh+ fetus, maternal anti-D IgG will cross the placenta recognizing and targeting D-antigen-bearing RBC for destruction. Memory cells respond rapidly against the fetal D antigen causing hemolytic anemia in baby.
Bradykinin - released during inflammation. causes blood vessels to dilate ( vascular permeability)
Regeneration - new cells of same type (epidermis of skin, liver)
Repair - closure of the wound but may involve scarring
To get infected - must be susceptible, need portal of entry, need virulence (strength)
If gets past 2nd line of defense will get infected
1st line of defense - skin, mucous membranes, cilia, mucous
2nd line of defense - inflammation
3rd line of defense - immune system (T cells and B cells)
UTI frequently caused by E. coli. in women
HIV targets T helper cells.
Fungal infections - yeast infections, mycoses, dermatophyte , jock itch, tinea pedis, tinea corporis, tinea capitis
Helminth - worm
Huntington's Disease - need high calorie diet b/c chorea. chorea causes involuntary movements using energy.
Sickle Cell Disease - Clotting causing emboli occlusion causing blockage causing ischemia leading to infarction leading to necrosis. Need blood supply to have inflammation. Reason for early death.
Fragile X Syndrome - inherited condition. Males severely mentally retarded. Females slightly impaired
Celiac Disease - T cell mediated disease. Related to gluten
Babies fed on cow's milk at risk for anemia b/c cow's milk has a protein (heat labile protein) that causes GI inflammation. Babies can become anemic from GI bleeds from the inflammation
Leptin - associated w/ obesity, insulin resistance, fat tissue produces leptin.
Overactive Bladder in kids. Child with urgency; increased voiding frequency and/or incontinence may or may not be present
Urinalysis Lab Report - casts are abnormal and come from kidney through bladder and out through urine
Urine is slightly acidic, should not have ketones, glucose, enzymes, white cells
Sweet pee related to diabetes.
Tuberculosis caused by microbacterium rod shaped bacilus
Right heart failure can be caused by lung disease such as COPD, pulmonary disease. Right Heart Failure is associated with the vessels of the lungs.
Raynaud Phenomenon caused by temp change usually cold temp causes arterial occlusion. Symptoms - pale cold extremities
Left Heart Failure caused by Hypertension
Low output heart failure - when body