The New Immigrants Outline
New Immigrants come America
-Old immigrants came to the U.S. for economic opportunity and religious freedom.
-Majority were Protestants from North and West Europe.
-They came as families, stayed on farms with friends and families who had arrived to the U.S. before them, and majority had money, skill, trade or were educated.
-1840s and 50s many Germans and Irish arrived after the Civil War. Americans disliked the Catholics but they benefit from the good reputation of their Protestant countrymen. Their children blend in with native-borns.
-Irish and Germans were join with “new” immigrants from south and east Europe.
-New immigrants were either Catholics or Jewish; they were poor, unskilled and went to the urban areas rather than the rural. They came alone, planned to save some money and return to their home to live.
-Immigrants came from Italy, Greece, Poland, Hungary and Russia. After 1990, there were 70% of immigrants from south and east Europe. Americans felt pressured with different cultures and languages.
Immigrants decide to leave home
-Famine, war and persecutions are Push factors that forces people to leave their homes. Economic opportunity and Religious freedom are Pull factors that attract people to a new place.
- Push Factors 1880- in Mexico, Poland and China, land reform and low prices forced many farmers off their land. China and East Europe had countless wars and political revolutions. These events affected their economies and political refugees, which led the coming here-to the U.S. - for a better life.
Pull Factors- railroad companies lowered the fares because they needed customers in the west for their business to exceed.
-1885 immigrants were recruited to build railroads, dig in mines, or work in fields. Many were “chain immigrants,” joining family and friends who had already lived in America.
The Immigrant Experience
-Travelers (Atlantic Ocean) had money, but only enough for a ticket.
-They would bring: clothes, a photograph, a musical instrument or their trades.
Immigrants suffered from steerage- the worst accommodations on the ship. Many passengers died from seasick or spread of illness.
-To enter, you had to show that you’re healthy, had money skill or a sponsor. 1892, they were processed at Ellis Island.
1st and 2nd passengers were released, unless they had medical problems.
-2% of immigrants were denied, because officers conducted medical inspections.
Other immigrants( Asian and Chinese) traveled the Pacific ocean arrived in San Francisco at Angel Island opened in 1910.
-After 1882, Chinese travelers were turned down, unless they can prove they’re American citizens or they had relatives here. Some were held for week or months in poor condition because officers assume that Chinese misrepresent themselves do they’d enter.
Opportunities and Challenges in America
Finding somewhere to stay, work, learning a new language and adjusting to new customs and culture were some of the tough decisions and challenges immigrants faced.
Many stayed in cities near the industrial jobs(factories). They lives in ghettoes, with people who shared their language, religion culture, or people who came from the same place as them.
-In 1890, immigrants made up 40% of the population in the cities. Exclusionist policies forced them to live in ghettoes, but they left their shops, grocers and clothing stores behind.
- Volunteer institutions ran Americanization programs, helping them