Essay Immune System and Cells T Cells

Submitted By comfortanosike
Words: 4812
Pages: 20

Year 12 Biology
9.4 The Search for Better
Health
Focus Area 5

Name: ____________________
Class: ____________________
Teacher:
page 1

_________________

The Search for Better Health: Focus 5 – Contents
Past HSC Questions
Worksheet
1. Syllabus
2. Third Line of Defence
3. Cell Mediated Immunity

4. Antibody Mediated Immunity

5. Macfarlane Burnet

6. Organ Transplants and the
Suppression of the Immune
Response

7. Immunity

8. Vaccination Programs

page 2

HSC Paper

Questions

2001
2003
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2012
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20, 28a, c
6, 8, 16
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Textbook
References Biology the
Spectrum of Life
BSL1-7.10: pp366-374

BSL1-7.10: pp366-374 clonal selection theory
BSL1-7.12: pp378-380

BSL1-7.11: pp374-378

Syllabus
5. MacFarlane
Burnet’s work in the middle of the twentieth century contributed to a better understanding of the immune response and the effectiveness of immunisation programs

 identify the components of the immune response: – antibodies
– T cells
– B cells
 describe and explain the immune response in the human body in terms of:
 interaction between B and T lymphocytes  the mechanisms that allow interaction between B and T lymphocytes  the range of T lymphocyte types and the difference in their roles
 outline the way in which vaccinations prevent infection
 outline the reasons for the suppression of the immune response in organ transplant patients

page 3

 process, analyse and present information from secondary sources to evaluate the effectiveness of vaccination programs in preventing the spread and occurrence of once common diseases, including smallpox, diphtheria and polio

Syllabus dot point: identify the components of the immune response:
– antibodies
– T cells
– B cells
Syllabus dot point: describe and explain the immune response in the human body in terms of:
– interaction between B and T lymphocytes
– the mechanisms that allow interaction between B and T lymphocytes
– the range of T lymphocyte types and the difference in their roles

Third Line of Defence
If foreign particles are successful in penetrating the barriers of the first line of defence, and then survive the non-specific responses of the second line of defence, the body will then instigate the third line of defence. The third line of defence is called the immune response and is a specific response. It involves the production of two different types of lymphocytes, B cells and T cells, which are specific to the invading particle (antigen). These lymphocytes work together and launch an intensive attack to try to rid the body of this foreign material. In the process, cells that remember the specific antigens are also produced, so that the next time these antigens enter the body they are destroyed as soon as they are recognised. This ability to remember is called acquired immunity and develops during the lifetime of an individual. B cells
B cells are lymphocytes that are produced and mature in the bone marrow. After they have matured they are also released into the blood, spleen, tonsils and lymph nodes. On its surface, each mature B cell has a different antibody that will only respond to a specific antigen. B cells live for only a few days and if they encounter their antigen they will become activated; if not, they will die. When a B cell becomes activated, it makes many copies of itself and each of these cells form plasma cells that produce antibodies specific to that particular antigen. These antibodies will then move to the site of the infection and combine with the antigen to form the antigen–antibody complex, which deactivates the antigen. B cells control the antibody mediated immunity, which defends the body against:
 bacteria and viruses…