I. Crown Rule
● The placement of laws to protect the authority of the Crown rapidly changed
Indian economy and limited their political say
How did British rule change after the Great Revolt?
● The new British army consisted of loyal sepoy that were kept from higher ranking positions to avoid a challenge of authority, so they were used to put down protests and national movements
● The British established laws to restrict the Indians and used segregation to empower themselves further
ii. Why did the British conduct a census in India?
● The first census was conducted in 1871 to record where Indians lived and worked, what language(s) they spoke, and anything else that contributed to their identity so the British could implement laws to better control the population
● There was a religious focus during the census causing religious leaders to attempt to attract new followers to their diminishing religions
iii. How did the use of caste in the census change
● Brahmans persuaded the British to take note of the caste identity, ranking their place in society, consisting of over 300 groups
● Laws were put in place that linked Indians caste identity to property rights, military recruitment, and policing, giving landholders and farmers more freedom to land than someone involved in trade or commerce, placed “warrior castes” in the military, and considered the lowest ranking castes as criminals that were required to contact the police on a weekly basis
iv. How did the railway system strengthen the British
● The expansion of transportation networks in India provided quick military transport and rapid delivery of raw materials to the coast. In addition, these projects made a lot of money for the government and British private investors
v. How did the railways affect Indian society?
● The implement of railroads cleared forests, allowed easier transportation to religious events, created new towns, allowed for the expansion of urban centers and port cities, and caused unemployment to those without access to public transport
● Being unable to keep up with the great flow of foreign goods caused peasants and artisans to lose their jobs and begin to harvest cash crops that were more in demand of the market
II. Indian Politics and Protest
● Indians facing hardships, like famine, began to challenge the government that had no problem spending mass amounts of money on festivals and royal visits
i. Why did the British want to partition Bengal?
● Anticolonial debates and protests of students and workers in Calcutta of the
British Raj’s most profitable province of Bengal made the British decide to partition Bengal to keep in control of the province
● In the partition, the Muslim peasant population would become separated from the Hindu classes that were more professional and educated to…