Indigenous Peoples of the Americas and Brands Copyright Essay

Submitted By mariaK12
Words: 2086
Pages: 9

America: Past and Present
Ninth Edition

Chapter

1

New World Encounters

America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition
Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands

Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.

Native American Histories
Before Conquest
• 20,000 years ago—Siberian hunters became first American inhabitants
• 14,000 years ago—humans reached tip of
South America
• These Paleo-Indians did not suffer from many communicative diseases

America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition
Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands

Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.

Routes of the First Americans

America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition
Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands

Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.

The Environmental Challenge:
Food, Climate, and Culture
• Native Americans enjoyed an abundant supply of meat
– Some suggest they over-hunted and caused the extinction of several large species
– Global warming played a much bigger role in allowing American Indians to enter heart of
North America

America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition
Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands

Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.

The Environmental Challenge:
Food, Climate, and Culture
• 5000 years ago – agricultural revolution
(development of agriculture) revolutionalized Native American cultures
– Crops included maize, squash, and beans
– Shift from nomadic hunting and gathering to permanent villages or large cities
– Explains difference in Indian cultures in New
World
America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition
Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands

Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.

Mysterious Disappearances
• Anasazi culture—Chaco Canyon
– Sophisticated irrigation
– Well-built roads for transportation

• Adena and Hopewell peoples—Ohio
Valley
– Large ceremonial mounds
– Extensive trade network

America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition
Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands

Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.

Mysterious Disappearances
• Cahokia—Mississippi Valley
– Large ceremonial mounds
– Far-flung trade network

America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition
Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands

Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.

Aztec Dominance
• Aztecs settled valley of Mexico
• Center of large, powerful empire
• Highly-organized social and political structure • Ruled through fear and force

America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition
Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands

Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.

Eastern Woodland Cultures
• Atlantic coast of North America
• Native Americans lived in smaller bands
• Agriculture supplemented by hunting and gathering • First and most often natives encountered by
English settlers were Algonquian speaking

America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition
Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands

Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.

Locations of Major Indian Groups and Culture Areas in the 1600s

America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition
Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands

Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.

A World Transformed
• Large numbers of whites profoundly altered native cultures
• The rate of change varied from place to place • Native traditions changed radically for cultural survival

America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition
Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands

Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.

LONGHOUSE
• Woodland Indian longhouse…