Honors World History
Industrial Revolution Review Writing Exercise
1) The industrial revolution led to a separation between the workplace and home, changing, accordingly, the roles that men and women played, in the previous cottage system. For example, all the members of a working class family went to work. The separation of home and workplace which was brought about by the Industrial Revolution led to a growing popularity of the notion of separate spheres that women's realm was the home, and man's the workplace. The ideal was the woman presiding over the home and exercising an influence for good on husband and children. Of course, this ignored the fact that a great many women had to work for a living whether they liked it or not. Whereas previously people had practiced cottage industries at home, now they had to go out to work in factories, mines, etc. Many women were working in factories and down mines during the Industrial Revolution, often in appalling conditions. Various acts were passed during the course of the 19th century which limited the hours they could work and the occupations they could engage in. In 1842 for instance an act was passed banning women from working underground in mines. At the time this was considered a humanitarian measure, though nowadays no doubt it would be considered sexist. The spread of education led to a great many women being employed as schoolteachers. In America, for example, over half the schoolteachers in the public school system were women by 1870, and in the UK huge numbers worked as teachers too. The invention of the telegraph, the telephone, and the typewriter, created many more jobs for women, since women were found to be more adept than men at managing these appliances. The women also worked in factories, in unhealthy environments, pay usually by the hour to maximize the profits of the factories' owners.
2) The Industrial Revolution changed material production, wealth, labor patterns and population distribution. Although many rural areas remained farming communities during this time, the lives of people in cities changed drastically. The new industrial labor opportunities caused a population shift from the countryside to the cities. The new factory work led to a need for a strict system of factory discipline. During this time, child labor and the unsafe working conditions rampant in many factories led to reform movements. Population movement was caused by people living in small farming communities who moved to cities. These prospective workers were looking for wage labor in newly developed factories. Everybody moved to the city to work in the factories, and if everyone is in the city then you will have urbanization. Industrialization caused urbanization mainly because when the Industry advanced, it offered more jobs and attracted people to the city. As the population rose of immigrants, more efficient transportation and uses were needed. Such as the subway system and the air conditioner.
3) Socialism describes a political and economic system where the people, through their government, control the means of production, manufacturing and agriculture. Socialist systems are generally planned economies, in that the economy is regulated and controlled, to a large extent, by the central government. Under these conditions, government generally controls and offers many major services controlled by the private sector in other economies. These include health care, transportation, and social security provisions. Unlike conservatism and liberalism, the definition of socialism is limited to political economy.
Liberalism historically referred to a general absence of governmental intervention in the economy, combined with a belief in basic human liberties. Its modern meaning, however, especially in the United States, connotes an acceptance of a certain role for government in bringing about social justice, regulating the economy, and providing services. Modern liberals,