Positive- Increased worker productivity, encouraged economic specialization, promoted growth of large scale enterprise, rapid urbanization and migration
Negative- Drew families apart, altered traditional patterns of domestic life, strained family relations
2. Often lived in squalor and labored under dangerous conditions
3. Great Britain had some of Western Europe’s largest coal deposits, and the Americas also gave Great Britain great economic relief by the export of cotton and sugar.
4. They had to be able to access coal deposits and exploit overseas resources.
5. Cotton became more popular because cotton was lighter, easier to wash, and quicker to dry than wool was.
6. no longer had any work because their products were replaced by the mass production caused by factories
Owners- Began to look after many more people, as more people are required to quickly and effectively make each product.
7. Josiah Wedgwood (1730-1795) was an Englishman who owned a pottery plant. When he saw a defective item he would place it on the floor, and break it with his peg leg, saying, “This will not do for Josiah Wedgwood”.
8. The factory system led to the emergence of the new class of owners whose capital financed equipment and machinery that were too expensive for workers to acquire. It also allowed managers to improve worker productivity and realize spectacular increases in the output of manufactured goods. But the main work force consisted of poor lower-class that had no skills and relied on owners for livelihood and former artisans became obsolete as most owners searched for very
9. that was enough to end their rampage.
10. Great Britain were aware of their advantageous head start for they forbade the export of machinery, manufacturing techniques, and skilled workers.
11. By the mid- 19th century, France, Germany, Belgium, and the United States, had started the industrialization process.
12. German industrialization was slower partly because of political instabilities resulting from competition between many of the German states. Bismarck sponsored rapid industrialization. The Bismarck government also encouraged the development of heavy industry and the formations of large businesses. (In the interest of strengthening military capacity).
13. Africans, during the 18th century, went to the Americas at about a total of 5.5 million to 10 million. But during the 19th century, about 50 million migrants moved from Europe to the United States.
14. American industrialization began in the 1820’s and by 1900 the United States has become an “economic powerhouse” due to the fact that it was large enough to have many natural resources, and had built canals and railroad to facilitate distribution and transportation.
15. Corporation- private business owned by hundreds, thousands, or even millions of individuals and individual investors.
16. Vertical organization- control the processing of a certain goods. (extract, export, ship, package, manufacture)
Horizontal organization- absorbs competitors, fixes prices, divide markets, and regulate production
Monopoly- the complete control of a certain kind of good
17. In most preindustrial societies, fertility rates were high, but famines and epidemics resulted in high mortality, especially child mortality. During industrial societies, death rates began to fall because of better diets and improved disease control. As more babies survived to adulthood, the population of industrializing societies grew rapidly.
18. Demographic transition- the shifting patterns of fertility and mortality
Short Term- Mortality fell faster than fertility so population continued to increase
Long Term Effects- Declining birthrates led to lower population growth and relative demographic stability
19. Three waves of migrants to the United States: British migrants often sought to escape the dangerous factories, Irish migrants departed during the potato famine in the 1840s, and millions of Jews