Influences in Moral Development Essay

Submitted By mregueral
Words: 1463
Pages: 6

PSY 2012: Test 1 Review, Chapters 1-4
1. Mental process and what it involves
The term psychology derives from the roots psyche, meaning “mind,” and logos, meaning “word.” Modern psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Behavior is anything we do—from sleeping to rock climbing. Mental processes are our private, internal experiences—thoughts, perceptions, feelings, memories, and dreams.

2. Empirical Evidence
Empirical evidence: Information acquired by direct observation and measurement using systematic scientific methods.

3. Critical Thinking
Critical Thinking: The process of objectively evaluating, comparing, analyzing, and synthesizing information.

4. Goals of Psychology
Scientific psychology has four basic goals: to describe, explain, predict, and change behavior and mental processes through the use of scientific methods. Let’s consider each within the context of aggressive behavior.

5. Theories and theorists
Important Theorist(s)
Mayor Emphases
Sigmund Freud
Unconscious processes and unresolved past conflicts.
John B. Watson
B. F. Skinner

Objective, observable environmental influences on overt behavior.
Humanistic psychology
Carl Rogers
Abraham Maslow
Free will (voluntarily chosen behavior) and self-actualization (a state of self-fulfillment), and human nature as naturally positive and growth-seeking.
Like psychoanalysis, humanist psychology developed an influential theory of personality and a form of psychotherapy.
Cognitive psychology
Jean Piaget
Thinking, perceiving, problem solving, memory, language, and information processing.
Neuroscientific/ Biosychological

Genetics and biological processes in the brain and other parts of the nervous system.

Natural selection, adaptation, and evolution of behavior and mental processes.

Social interactions and the cultural determinants of behavior and mental processes.

6. The first African American to earn a Ph.D. in psychology
Francis Cecil Sumner became the first African American to earn a Ph.D. in psychology.

7. Neuroscience
An interdisciplinary field studying how biological processes relate to behavioral and mental processes.

8. Chromosomes
At the moment of your conception, your mother and father each contributed to you 23 chromosomes. Thousands of genes make up each chromosome. (For some traits, such as blood type, a single pair of genes (one from each parent) determines what characteristics you will possess. But most traits are determined by a combination of many genes. When the two genes for a given trait conflict, the outcome depends on whether the gene is dominant or recessive. A dominant gene reveals its trait whenever the gene is present. In contrast, the gene for a recessive trait will normally be expressed only if the other gene in the pair is also recessive.

9. How many chromosomes in the body
Chromosomes: Each cell nucleus contains 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs (one chromosome of each pair is from each parent). Chromosomes are threadlike molecules of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).

10. If a trait is recessive, this means what will it take in gene(s) for the trait to manifest itself in one's offspring. FALSE

11. Cell’s parts and functions

12. What happens to leftover transmitters in the synapse?
What happens to excess neurotransmitters or to those that do not “fit” into the adjacent receptor sites? The sending neuron normally reabsorbs the excess (called “reuptake”) or they are broken down by special enzymes.

13. Which neurotransmitter is associated with mania?
Norepinephrine (NE) (or noradrenaline)

14. High levels of Norepinephrine (NE) (or noradrenaline) are associated with states of mania.

15. Cortisol
Cortisol, a key element of the HPA Axis, plays a critical role in the long-term effects of stress. Prolonged elevation of cortisol has