Increase in blood pressure
Increase in heart rate
Increase in cardiac output
Increase in stroke volume
Increase in vasodilation
Breathing rate increases
Increase in tidal volume
More oxygen is used
Increase of carbon dioxide
Nervous control of muscular contraction
Action Potential(electrical impulse)
Phosphocreatine- ATP system
Lactic acid energy system
Cardiovascular system responses
An initial response of the cardiovascular system is an increase in blood pressure. This happens because during exercise the muscles need more oxygen. So the heart then pumps more blood around the body with more powerful contractions therefore increasing the blood pressure.
The second initial response of the cardiovascular system is an increase in heart rate. The heart rate increases to make sure the working muscles receive a sufficient amount of oxygen and nutrients. As well the heart rate is also increased to remove waste products such as carbon dioxide.
Moving on to the third initial response which is an increase in cardiac output. Cardiac output is increased due to the heart trying to meet the muscles need for increased levels of blood and oxygen which are vital for the muscles to keep going. Moreover your cardiac output will increase as the intensity of your activity increases.
Furthermore, there is also an increase in stroke volume as soon as you start exercising. This occurs depending on how you exercise due to the body needing more oxygen and nutrients. The increase of stroke volume is dependent on the type of exercise you are doing and also the training level. Stroke volume can increase from a small amount to a big amount because of the intensity being increased by a significant amount.
The final initial response of the cardiovascular system is the increase in vasodilation. Vasodilation increases so more oxygenated blood can be delivered to the muscles in a healthy body.
Investigation of the increase in anticipatory rise
In our class, six students took part in an investigation where they each measured their resting heart rate for 30 seconds. This resting heart rate was then doubled to give a result for 1 minute. After the students measured their resting heart rate for 30 seconds, they were then told that they would be participating in exercise. This caused an anticipatory rise for each of the students, because their heart rate was again measured but increased slightly from the first time they measured their heart rate. The anticipatory rise occurred because of the releases of the neurotransmitters called adrenaline and noradrenaline. The neurotransmitters then increased the heart rate and blood pressure which results in more oxygen being issued to the working muscles. Therefore this has a positive response on the performance. The table below displays the results of the students who took part in the investigation.
Resting heart rate (bpm)
Anticipatory rise (bpm)
Working heart rate (bpm)
Type of exercise
Respiratory system responses
The first initial response of the respiratory system is an increase in breathing rate. This occurs so more oxygen can be taken in with each individual breath. This increased amount of oxygen is then taken in by the lungs which mixes with the blood and is then on its way to the heart. The heart then pumps this blood around the body including the muscles which are working due to exercise.