Civil Engineering Part The civil engineering construction projects are completed to time and budget but few get publicity for it. As a result the successful management of a civil engineering project depends upon use of an appropriate contract for construction.
Virtually all civil engineering structures are unique, they are designed for some specific purpose at some specific location before they can be constructed and put to use. There are inherent risks arising I this process because the design, and therefore the estimated cost of the works is based on assumptions that may later have to be altered. The cost can be affected by the weather during construction and the nature of the ground or ground water conditions encountered.
Health and Safety Regulations
The Construction Regulations 1994 (SI 1994/3140), sets out minimum safety and health requirements at temporary or mobile construction sites. The aim is to promote effective health and safety measures by placing certain duties on the client, designers and contractors involved in a project, and introducing a new role of planning supervisor. The following are main requirements:
The client has to appoint a planning supervisor and name the principal contractor and be reasonable satisfied that they have adequate resources and competence to carry out their duties.
The planning supervisor has to notify the HSE of the intended project and ensure that a health and safety plan is prepared in respect of the project. He has to ensure that the designers pay adequate regard to health and safety matters.
The designers have to ensure that any design includes among the design considerations adequate regard to the need, to avoid foreseeable risks to health and safety. Designers must also ensure that the design includes adequate information about any aspect of the project or structure or materials which might affect the health or safety of any person.
The principal contractor is required to comply with the health and safety plan and augment its provisions as necessary during construction. As principal contractor he has to co-ordinate the activities of all other contractors and sub-contractors on the site and see that they comply with the health and safety plan.
Health and Safety Plan under CDM regulations
The CDM regulations require that a Health and Safety Plan be developed pre-tender and then continued and modified in construction phase. The pre-tender plan has to include:
Project description and details of client, planning supervisor and designers
Existing safety arrangements and rules, permits and emergency procedures
Safety hazards including: access, hazardous materials or structures, existing services and ground conditions
Design assumptions and identified risks, co-ordination of future design changes
Safety goals for the project and arrangements for monitoring and review
Environmental restrictions and on-site risks
In addition to this the following regulations are required:
Provision and use of work equipment (PUWER)- requires that the equipment provided for use at work is suitable, safe for use, maintained in a safe condition.
Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations (LOLER)- requires that any lifting equipment used at