Inactive and sedentary lifestyles are immensely prominent in modern society. Even in those who do perform activity, weaknesses and imbalances in the musculature and kinetic chain of the human body are primarily responsible for the cause of injury and inefficiency of functional performance. Traditional and single plane of motion exercise do not properly train or prepare individuals for the unpredictable and varied environments that we exist in. The best way to arm the body with self-sufficient neuromuscular capabilities is with integrated training. The concept of integrated training combines several types of exercises that offer a plethora of exercise-induced benefits, both acute and chronic. These training variables include the areas of static, active-isolated, foam rolling, and dynamic stretching, warm-up, core, resistance, balance, cardiorespiratory, speed, agility, and quickness, and cool-down. Allowing a combination of these exercise factors ensures that the individual lowers the risk of disease, conditions of deterioration, and risk of injury. In addition, any individual that participates in an integrated training program will be more adapted to move in a more prosperous manner within the environment around them.
The OPT Model
NASM has developed the Optimum Performance Training model, which allows any individual to reach any goal with proper acute variables. The OPT model is broken down in to three main stages: stability, strength, and power. * The stabilization stage includes the phase of stabilization endurance. This refers to training in a proprioceptively rich environment, or an environment that is controlled yet unstable. This phase assists in correcting physiological imbalances and preparing the neurological system for more complicated and unbalanced movements so that it may be better suited for unpredictable and stability-demanding situations. The main purpose is to eventually stabilize joints and improve the efficiency of the postural structure. This is the phase the Alicia will primarily perform in, as it is for most beginning clients.
* The strength stage is broken down into three phases; strength endurance, hypertrophy, and maximal strength.
* Strength endurance involves utilizing the adaptations achieved in the previous phase and increasing the load or intensity to put more stress upon the prime move while simultaneously engaging stabilization muscles with supersetting; performing two consecutive exercises with no rest period in between them. This elicits the same arthrokinetic response that the stabilization endurance phase did while challenging overall postural stabilization. Alicia may enter this phase as she develops the desire for strength, which can help her in her Half Dome hike through the recruitment of motor units and may increase her lactic acid threshold, allowing for muscular endurance.
* The third phase of hypertrophy, or the gain of a larger cross-sectional muscle area, is for those who want to gain size. This phase uses high loads and also increases motor unit recruitment. This phase is optional for Alicia as muscular size may not be desired. However the increase in motor unit recruitment due to the larger muscle area may help propel her through the environments involved in her hike.
* The fourth phase, maximal strength, uses very high loads to get the most effort out of the prime mover. The phase is unnecessary for Alicia as it has nothing to do with her goals of fat loss or hike preparation. It is highly unlikely that Alicia will be required to move something requiring maximal strength in a functional environment or during her hike.
* The fifth and final stage, power, concentrates on recruiting the previously attained strength adaptations and executing exercises as quickly as possible with control to achieve higher rates of force production. This phase is also optional for Alicia. The quickness of moving a load may produce