Application of disciplines and concepts & cross cutting issues to geographic locations.
Why study these regions?
To ascertain why is important: areas of specialization. Study of any region is disciplinary
Region as human construct that usually emerges in history. Distinguished one area from another
Two types of regions: (1) Formal (language communities, agricultural fields, Midwest, Middle East, Asia Pacific etc) (FORMAL rather than FUNCTIONAL)
(2) Functional (hunting territories, exclusive economic zones, river basins, watersheds, airspace)
* Word ‘ASIA’ derived from is location to the east of Phoenicians ( a member of an ancient semitic people of north west Syria) along the medication- meaning east. Conversely, Europe meant ‘West’. (directions of their sunset)
Significance of Asia * Biggest continent in the world * Most populous (60% of World Population) * Source of oldest civilizations * Cultural diversity, various religions, languages, scripts * Rising economic power source of various global goods and services. Rising power. * Asia’s political power: China, Pakistan and India as nuclear powers, China member of the UN Security Council.
Is divided into 4 overlapping regions: east Asia, South Asia, South East Asia, Central Asia. Specialists in difference regions, divided for purposes of analysis. * Overlapping: eg. Central Asia categorized as Middle East (Pakistan, for instance due to religion and war on terror) * Religion communality does not equal linguistic commonality= diversity
HISTORY * Known for some of oldest kingdoms and early civilizations: Chinese 2000BC, Japanese empires 50BC
* European Coloniaism and cultural/ economic subjugation (to bring under control/ conquer)
* Nationalist movements: India (ghandi), Vietnam (Ho Chi Mihn(, Indonesia (Sukarno)
* Look up current nationalist movements: EXAM political, ideological regional movements in region (currently fighting for independence). Tiawan Vis a Vis China
* Political fundamentalism
CULTURE: INTERPRETING COMMONSENSES
* extremely diverse * In contrast to Europe, little uniting culture- each country has its own belief systems, languages (or dialects), many religions * Four waves of religion (1) Hinduism & Daoism oldest religions spread by traders (2) Teachings of Budda (C500BC) South Asia (3) Islam (1000AD) Due to Turkish traders influence over South Asia especially Pakistan, Bangladesh, Malaysia and Indonesia (4) Secularism final wave (and role of socialism): Marxist atheism.
Marxist is about ideology rather than religion * There isn’t a singular Asian culture * ‘Unity in diversity’ * Challenge how to retain myriad of cultural identities in the midst of globalizing issues: Within Asia, Globally * Commonalities due to geographical proximity- recognized right for women and children even though there is not one culture. At UN level, Asian values debate, in Asian cultures protection of women. * Afghanistan signed into law that a husband could starve his wife if she were to misbehave- cannot study, go to the doctors, work etc. * Human rights law debated international human rights and cultural relativism: respect for a women is a universal value or culturally relative?
-Major international actor
- Uses various strategies to promote their economies, mainly