Essay on Ir Sepectrum

Submitted By Kramerjack1
Words: 827
Pages: 4

3/2/2013

Bullet train collision 2011 in China

Chapter 6 Halides
6.7A Reactions of alkyl halides: substitution
1
-

C C H X
2

+

Nuc:

-

C C H Nuc

+

X:

• The halogen atom on the alkyl halide is replaced/substituted with another group (Nucleophile). • Since the halogen is more electronegative than carbon, the C-X bond breaks heterolytically and X- anion leaves (with the lone pair of electrons). • The group replacing/substituting X- is a nucleophile, and X- is a leaving group.

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The question is how did the fallen car broken from the train? There are at least 2 possibilities - Use your imagination .…..

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6.8 SN2 Mechanism (2nd order nucleophilic substitution)
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6.13 SN1 Reaction (continued)
SN1 Mechanism

H H H

2

H HO C Br H H HO C

H + H H

H O

C Br

Br

-

Formation of carbocation (slow, rate determining step)

(CH3)3C Br
• Bimolecular nucleophilic substitution. • Concerted reaction: new bond forming and old bond breaking at same time. • Rate is first order in each reactant. • Walden inversion.

(CH3)3C

+

+ Br

-

I’m empty orbital!

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6.13 SN1 Reaction (continued)
SN1 Mechanism (continued)
• Nucleophilic attack

Now we go back to finish Chapter 4 ………….. 4.4 Equilibrium constant and free energy (review Gen Chem)

(CH3)3C

+

+ H O H

(CH3)3C O H H

K eq 

 [ producti ] i  [ reactant j ] j • Loss of H+ (if needed)
+

+ (CH3)3C O H + H O H

(CH3)3C O H

+ H3O

• For chlorination Keq = 1.1 x 1019 • Large value indicates reaction “goes to completion.”

H
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4.4 Equilibrium constant and free energy (continued) Gibbs free energy change
• G = free energy of (products - reactants), amount of energy available to do work.

4.4 Equilibrium constant and free energy (continued) Example:

• Negative values indicate spontaneity. • Standard free energy: Go = -RTlnKeq where R = 8.314 J/(Kmol) and T – temperature in kelvins • Since chlorination has a large Keq, the free energy change is large and negative. • Given that -X is -OH, the energy difference for the reaction above is 4.0 kJ/mol. • What percentage of cyclohexanol molecules will be in the equatorial conformer at equilibrium at 25°C?

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4.5A Enthalpy 4.4 Equilibrium constant and free energy (continued) Factors determining G
• Free energy change depends on – enthalpy – entropy • H = (enthalpy of products) - (enthalpy of reactants) • S = (entropy of products) - (entropy of reactants) • G = H - TS Ho = heat released or absorbed during a chemical reaction at standard conditions. • Exothermic, (H0), heat is absorbed. • Reactions favor products with lowest enthalpy (strongest bonds). •

4.5B Entropy
• So = change in randomness, disorder, freedom of movement. • Increasing heat, volume, or number of particles increases entropy. • Spontaneous reactions: large negative enthalpy and large positvie entropy. • In the equation Go = Ho - TSo , the entropy value is often small. Ho has a unit of kcal/mol, while So has a unit of cal/(mol K).
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4.6 Bond-dissociation enthalpies (continued) 4.6 Bond-dissociation enthalpies Which is more likely?
Estimate H for each step using BDE. • Bond breaking requires energy (+BDE). • Bond…