Isaac Newton is considered by many to be the father of modern physics. He invented calculus, and with calculus, people could now create mathematical models of changing systems. His three laws of motion and his law of gravitation, however, are still one of the first things that all physics students learn, and are the basis behind a lot of physics that is done today. Although Newton made many very important contributions to the world of science, the most important to astronomy were his laws of motion and law of gravity.

Early Life:

Isaac Newton was born on December 25, 1642, in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. He was born three months after his father died who also happened to be a farmer, also named Isaac Newton. Isaac Newton’s mother remarried and went to live with her new husband when Isaac was the age of three, she left her son in the hands of his grandmother, Margery Ayscough.

When Newton was about twelve until he was seventeen, he was a student at The King's School. In 1659, he was attending the school Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, where his mother who was again widowed, tried to make Isaac a farmer. However he did not like to farm. Henry Stokes, who happened to be the master at the King's School, persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he could graduate and became the top ranked student.

In the summer of 1661, Isaac Newton was accepted into Trinity College, in Cambridge. In 1665, Isaac founded the binomial theorem and and also developed a math theory called infinitesimal calculus. Isaac’s school had closed down due to plague and during the time that the university was closed Isaac continued his studies at his home and saw the development of his theories. In 1667, he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity.

Middle Years:

Laws of Motion:

Much of classical mechanics or the set of physical laws describing the motion bodies on the force are laid out in Newton’s mathematical principle of natural philosophy, Published in 1687. Newton’s three laws of motion are perhaps the most well known of his works. The first law of motion is the law of Inertia, which states that an object at rest will remain at rest or and object in motion will remain in motion unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. The second law states that acceleration is produced when an external force acts on a mass. Isaac Newton’s third law of motion states that for every action there is an equal, and opposite reaction. Along with these laws he created he also published a book, “ the Principia”. This book helped many changes and advances to happen in the Industrial Revolution. “The Principia” consists of three books, the first book consists of definitions and the three laws of motion. The second book contains all of Newton’s information on scientific philosophy. The final book had all of Newton’s applications of his dynamics, which included all of his explanations for tides and the theory of lunar motion.

Optics:

From 1670 to 1672, Newton investigated the refraction of light, and said that a prism could decompose white light into a spectrum of colors. Newton also said that a lens and a second prism could recompose the multicolored spectrum into white light. He also showed that the colored light does not change its properties by separating out a colored beam and shining it on various objects. Newton realized that even if it was reflected or scattered or transmitted, it stayed the same color.

Newton later observed that color is the result of objects interacting with already colored light rather than objects making the color themselves. This is known as Newton's Theory of Color.

From this work, he concluded that the lens of any refracting